Lecture_14_102411 - Lecture 14: Bond Polarity Goals: Use...

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Lecture 14: Bond Polarity Goals: Use electronegativity to determine the polarity of a bond. Predict the three dimensional structure of a molecule and determine if it polar or nonpolar. Describe the attractive forces between ions, polar molecules and nonpolar molecules Outline (Timberlake 5.7-5.8): ± Electronegativity and Bond Polarity (5.7) ± Shape and Polarity of Molecules (5.8) ± Attractive Forces in Compounds (5.9) Problems for Extra Practice: 5.63, 5.65, 5.67, 5.69, 5.71, 5.73, 5.75, 5.77, 5.79, 5.81, 5.83, 5.85
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The electronegativity value • indicates the attraction of an atom for shared electrons • increases from left to right going across a period on the periodic table • decreases going down a group on the periodic table • is high for the nonmetals, with fluorine as the highest • is low for the metals Electronegativity
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3 Some Electronegativity Values Low values High values
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A nonpolar covalent bond • occurs between nonmetals • has an equal or almost equal sharing of electrons • has almost no electronegativity difference (0.0 to 0.4) Examples: Atoms Electronegativity Type of Bond Difference ______________ N–N 3.0 – 3.0 = 0.0 Nonpolar covalent Cl–Br 3.0 – 2.8 = 0.2 Nonpolar covalent H–Si 2.1 – 1.8 = 0.3 Nonpolar covalent Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
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A polar covalent bond • occurs between nonmetal atoms • has an unequal sharing of electrons • has a moderate electronegativity difference (0.5 to 1.7) Examples: Atoms Electronegativity Type of Bond Difference __________ _ O–Cl 3.5 – 3.0 = 0.5 Polar covalent Cl–C 3.0 – 2.5 = 0.5 Polar covalent O–S 3.5 – 2.5 = 1.0 Polar covalent Polar Covalent Bonds
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Comparing Nonpolar and Polar Covalent Bonds
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Ionic Bonds An ionic bond • occurs between metal and nonmetal ions • is a result of electron transfer • has a large electronegativity difference (1.8 or more). Examples:
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Lecture_14_102411 - Lecture 14: Bond Polarity Goals: Use...

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