Lecture_25_111411 - Lecture 25: Solubility Goals: Define...

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Lecture 25: Solubility Goals: Define solubility and distinguish between saturated and unsaturated solutions. Calculate the percent concentration of a solution and use the percent concentration to calculate the amount of solute or solvent. Outline (Timberlake 8.2-8.4): ± Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes (8.2) ± Solubility (8.3) ± Percent Concentration (8.4) Problems for Extra Practice: 8.21, 8.23, 8.25, 8.27, 8.29, 8.31, 8.33, 8.35, 8.37, 8.39, 8.41, 8.43, 8.45
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In water, • strong electrolytes produce ions and conduct an electric current • weak electrolytes produce a few ions • nonelectrolytes do not produce ions Solutes and Ionic Charge
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Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Solutions
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Strong electrolytes • dissociate in water, producing positive and negative ions • dissolved in water will conduct an electric current • in equations show the formation of ions in aqueous ( aq ) solutions H 2 O 100% ions NaCl( s ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) H 2 O CaBr 2 ( s ) Ca 2+ ( aq ) + 2Br - ( aq ) Strong Electrolytes
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Cations Found in Blood and Tissue Cation Biological function Na + Extracellular water, acid-base balance K + Intracellular water, acid-base balance Ca 2+ Bones, teeth, muscle activity Mg 2+ Essential factor for the function of many enzymes Zn 2+ Essential factor for the function of many enzymes Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ Essential factor for hemoglobin, oxidative enzymes
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Complete each of the following equations for strong electrolytes dissolving in water. H 2 O A. CaCl 2 ( s ) ? 1) CaCl 2 ( s ) 2) Ca 2+ ( aq ) + Cl 2 - ( aq ) 3) Ca 2+ ( aq ) + 2Cl - ( aq ) H 2 O B. K 3 PO 4 (s) ? 1) 3K + ( aq ) + PO 4 3- ( aq ) 2) K 3 PO 4 ( s ) 3) K 3 + ( aq ) + P 3- ( aq ) + O 4 - (aq) Learning Check
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A weak electrolyte • dissociates only slightly in water • in water forms a solution of a few ions and mostly undissociated molecules HF( g) + H 2 O( l) H 3 O + ( aq ) + F - ( aq ) NH 3 ( g) + H 2 O( l) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq) Weak Electrolytes
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• The most common weak electrolytes are weak acids and weak bases: Acetic acid is a typical weak acid: HC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - ( aq ) Ammonia is a common weak base: NH 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) Both of these species are ionized only ~1% Weak Electrolytes
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• Weak acids partially dissociate, forming only a small number of anions and hydrated protons. Acetic acid (HC
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Lecture_25_111411 - Lecture 25: Solubility Goals: Define...

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