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Lecture_35_120511

Lecture_35_120511 - Lecture 35 Acids and Bases Goals...

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Lecture 35: Acids and Bases Goals: Describe and name Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases. Identify conjugate acid-base pairs. Write equations for the dissociation of strong and weak acids. Write the equilibrium expression for a weak acid. Outline (Timberlake 9.6, 10.1-10.2): ± Equilibrium in Saturated Solutions (9.6) ± Acids and Bases (10.1) ± Strengths of Acids and Bases (10.2) Problems for Extra Practice: 10.1, 10.3, 10.5, 10.7, 10.9, 10.11, 10.13, 10.17, 10.19, 10.21, 10.25, 10.27

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Saturated Solution A saturated solution • contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute • contains solid solute • is an equilibrium system: rate of dissolving = rate of recrystallization solid ions in solution
Molar Solubility ( S ) The molar solubility ( S ) is • the number of moles of solute that dissolve in 1 L of solution • determined from the formula of the salt • calculated from the K sp

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Calculating Molar Solubility ( S )
Solubility Calculation Determine the solubility ( S ) 2 of SrCO 3 ( K sp = 5.4 x 10 –10 ). – Step 1: Write the equilibrium equation for dissociation: – Step 2: Write the K sp expression: – Step 3: Substitute S for the molarity of each ion into K sp : – Step 4: Calculate the solubility, S :

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Learning Check Calculate the solubility ( S ) of PbSO 4 , if the K sp = 1.6 x 10 –8 . 1) 1.3 x 10 –4 M 2) 4.0 x 10 –4 M 3) 2.6 x 10 –16 M
Acids Arrhenius acids • produce H + ions in water H 2 O HCl( g ) H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) • are electrolytes • have a sour taste • turn litmus red • neutralize bases

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Names of Acids • Acids with H and a nonmetal are named with the prefix hydro- and end with - ic acid. HCl
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Lecture_35_120511 - Lecture 35 Acids and Bases Goals...

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