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Lecture_37_120711 - Lecture 37 Reactions of Acids and Bases...

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Lecture 37: Reactions of Acids and Bases Goals: Write balanced equations for reactions of acids with metals, carbonates and bases. Predict whether a salt will form an acid, basic or neutral solution. Outline (Timberlake 10.5-10.6): - Reactions of Acids and Bases (10.5) - Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions (10.6) Problems for Extra Practice: 10.47, 10.49, 10.51, 10.53, 10.55, 10.57, 10.61
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• Mathematically, pH is the negative log of the hydronium ion concentration pH = -log [H 3 O + ] For a solution with [H 3 O + ] = 1 x 10 -4 , pH = -log [1 x 10 -4 ] pH = - [ - 4.0] pH = 4.0 Calculating pH
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Significant Figures in pH When expressing log values, the number of decimal places in the pH is equal to the number of significant figures in the coefficient of [H 3 O + ]. coefficient decimal places [H 3 O + ] = 1 x 10 -4 pH = 4. 0 [H 3 O + ] = 8.0 x 10 -6 pH = 5. 10 [H 3 O + ] = 2.4 x 10 -8 pH = 7. 62
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Guide to Calculating pH
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Example of Calculating pH Find the pH of a solution with a [H 3 O + ] of 1.0 x 10 -3 . – Step 1: Enter the [H 3 O + ] value: – Step 2: Press log key and change the sign: – Step 3: Make the number of digits after the decimal point (2) equal to the number of significant figures in the coefficient (2):
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Learning Check What is the pH of coffee if the [H 3 O + ] is 1 x 10 -5 M? 1) pH = 9.0 2) pH = 7.0 3) pH = 5.0
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The [H 3 O + ] of tomato juice is 2 x 10 -4 M. What is the pH of the solution? 1) 4.0 2) 3.7 3) 10.3 Learning Check
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The [OH - ] of a solution is 1.0 x 10 -3 M. What is the pH? 1) 3.00 2) 11.00 3) –11.00 Learning Check
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Learning Check A chemist dissolves 396. mg of pure nitric acid in enough water to make up 170. mL of solution. Calculate the pH of the solution.
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[H 3 O + ], [OH - ], and pH Values
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Calculating [H 3 O + ] from pH Calculate the [H 3 O + ] for a pH value of 8.0.
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