Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Exploratory and Observational Research Design Quantitative Research
. . . uses formal structured questions and predetermined response options in questionnaires or surveys administered to large numbers of respondents. Qualitative Research
. . . collection of data in the form of verbal comments, text or images, most often from small samples, using openended questions, observation, or "found" data. Found data = existing text, such as Facebook, MySpace, Google discussion groups, blogs, etc. Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Quantitative Validation of facts, estimates, predictions, relationships. Descriptive and causal designs. Mostly structured. Good representation of target populations. Statistical, descriptive, causal predictions, analysis of relationships possible. Qualitative Discovery of ideas, feelings, preliminary insights, as well as understanding of ideas. Exploratory. Open-ended, semi-structured or unstructured. Short time frames. Small samples, non-probability samples, limited generalizability. Subjective and content analysis. Goals of Quantitative Research Make accurate predictions about relationships between marketplace factors and purchase behavior. Gain meaningful insights into relationships. Validate relationships. Test hypotheses. Goals of Qualitative Research Gain preliminary insight into research problems. Probe more deeply into areas that quantitative research is too superficial to access. Provide initial ideas about specific problems, theories, relationships, variables, and scale design. Advantages/Disadvantages of Qualitative Designs
Advantages . . . Economical and timely Rich data Accuracy of recording behaviors Preliminary insights into models and scale measurements Disadvantages . . . Lack of generalizability Difficulty estimating magnitude of phenomena Low reliability Difficulty finding good investigators Reliance on subjective interpretation Usage of Qualitative Methods Focus groups Hybrids (2 or more) In-depth interviews Netnography Ethnography Chat-based online focus groups Video-based online focus groups Other 52% 14% 8% 4% 2% 1% 1% 5% Focus Groups
. . . bringing a small group of people together for an interactive, spontaneous discussion of a topic or concept. Focus Group Characteristics 8-12 participants plus moderator Session lasts 90 minutes 2 hours Respondents paid $75 $200 Overall cost $3000 5000+ Objectives of Focus Groups Identify data to define or clarify problems and opportunities. Reveal consumers' hidden attitudes. Generate new ideas for products. Discover new constructs and measurement methods. Explain changing consumer preferences. Focus Group Screener
Hello. This is _______. I am not trying to sell you anything. I am calling from Stolzberg Research, a local marketing research company to set up some discussion groups for the evening of January ??. If you qualify and participate, you will be paid $85.00 to come to a 1 hour group discussion. I need to ask you a couple of questions to see if you qualify. First, let me tell you that any comments you share in the group discussion will not be identified with you in any way. Do you work for a bank, ad agency or a market research company? If yes, thank and terminate. Can you come to a discussion on the evening of ??, January ? . . . at 6:00 p.m.__ . . . at 8:00 p.m. __ And, do you fit in the age group 35 to 64? And, is your annual household income $25,000 or greater? Are you the individual in your household that has 50% or more of the responsibility for decisions about financial services in your home? Finally, what is the typical process for financial decisions in your household? If individual meets all screening criteria, record name, etc. _______________ Thank you very much. We will see you on ?? evening, January ?? at 6:00/8:00 p.m. I will be sending you a confirmation letter so I will need your correct mailing address. Examples of Findings
(1) There is a lot of similarity about the meaning of "quality service". It is predominantly associated with "employee attentiveness, courtesy, friendliness, fast service, and knowledgeable employees."
Examples of responses: "If you have a problem, you want it taken care of quickly without excuses!" "The company must stand behind its product or service." "You want quick access to the right person to help you, whether it is to open an account, take out a loan, or solve a problem. You do not want to get shuffled around to a lot of people." "Well trained employees particularly frontline people like tellers and CSRs." "Financial services that are simple enough for me to understand." (2) An "ideal bank" is one that can provide all financial services in a single location in a personalized way . . . that doesn't cause you any problems or make mistakes, and is convenient. The bank keeps track of your accounts and if some new service come up they contact you and let you know. It offers security and solvency and you can trust it to be in business tomorrow and next year. Advantages of Focus Groups Obtains new ideas, thoughts, and feelings about a topic. Better understanding of customer behavior. Allows client participation. Elicits wide range of responses. Provides access to hard-to-reach participants, particularly on-line groups. In-depth Interview . . . a formal interview process in which a well-trained interviewer asks an individual a set of semi-structured questions in a face-to-face setting. ...
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- Spring '12
- Qualitative Research, focus groups