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Chapter_050 - Descriptive and Causal Research Designs...

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Unformatted text preview: Descriptive and Causal Research Designs Selecting a Descriptive Research Design Type of problem = describing the situation Research Questions = issues such as who, what, where, when & how Research Objectives = identify relationships and determine group differences Goal of Survey Research Methods Provide facts and estimates that can be used to make accurate predictions about relationships between market factors and behaviors gain insights to understanding the relationships and differences verify or validate the existing relationships Advantages/Disadvantages of Survey Research Design Advantages Accommodates large sample sizes Generalizable to target population Easy to administer and record answers Facilitates advanced statistical analysis Disadvantages Questions that accurately measure variables can be difficult to develop In-depth data difficult to obtain Low response rates Descriptive Research Two General Approaches Most Often Used Survey research asking structured questions about what respondents think, feel and do. The result is a quantitative study using numbers and statistics to summarize attitudes, behaviors, demographics, etc. Observation use of scanner data or computerized / Internet information (e.g., click thru, mystery shoppers, etc.) to describe behaviors, purchases, etc. Increasing Use Errors in Surveys Sampling error Nonsampling error Nonsampling Errors Four Types . . . 1. Respondent errors 2. Measurement/questionnaire design 3. Incorrect problem definition 4. Project administration Respondent errors . . . 1. Nonresponse 2. Response faulty memory, socially desirable answers, etc. What do you think of this question? Good? Bad? OK? Question: "How much did you spend on food items in the last month?" Answer: In general, respondents do not know the correct answer to this type of question, but they still answer it. They give an "informed guess" based on what they think is about right. But in this case it is better to have an "open-ended" question than to give ranges because respondents tend to select an average amount based on the range given no matter whether the range is from $200 to $500 or from $300 to $600! Major Types of Survey Research Methods PersonAdministered = Mall intercept & home/office TelephoneAdministered = CATI & wireless SelfAdministered = online, mail & drop-off Person-Administered Surveys Advantages Adaptability Rapport Feedback Response quality Disadvantages Possible recording errors Interaction errors High expense Mall Intercepts Telephone Surveys Advantages May use interviewers or CATI technology Less expensive than face to face methods Increased geographic flexibility Callbacks possible Fast Suitable for use with large number of respondents Disadvantages Difficult for complex tasks, long surveys, or those using visual aids Perception of telemarketing Change in behavior (voicemail, caller ID, mobile vs land lines) Limited to domestic research Self-Administered Types of Survey Research Respondent Respondent reads survey reads survey questions questions and records and records answers answers without without assistance assistance Mail Survey regular or email Mail Survey regular or email Mail Panel regular or email Mail Panel regular or email Drop-Off Drop-Off Internet Internet Advantages/Disadvantages of Self-Administered Surveys Advantages Low cost per survey Respondent control No interviewerresponse bias Anonymity in response Disadvantages Minimal flexibility High nonresponse rates Potential response errors Slow data acquisition Lack of monitoring Usage Rates for Survey Methods Internet CATI Hybrid Face-to-face intercepts Mail Other 39.0% 25.0% 14.0% 12.0% 4.0% 7.0% ...
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