Ch 4_handouts - 1 1 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions (MOLARITY!) 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations Midterm Exam 1 Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 2 Solutes The thing being dissolved, mixed, diluted! Solvents The material doing the dissolving, mixing, dilution! Solution The Fnal combination of the dissolution, mixing, and dilution! DeFnitions Solutes, Solvents and Solutions 2 3 Defnitions Solutes, Solvents and Solutions Solutes Compounds extracted from coffee grounds. Solvents Water Solution Morning coffee 4 WATER water is an important solvent dissolves many substances water is a POLAR molecule hydration breaks ionic compounds into anions and cations water dissolves different ionic compounds to different degrees (more in Ch 8) water also dissolves some nonionic substances if they are polar (ethanol-water) nonpolar substances are not dissolved (fats, oils) 2 3 Defnitions Solutes, Solvents and Solutions Solutes Compounds extracted from coffee grounds. Solvents Water Solution Morning coffee 4 WATER water is an important solvent dissolves many substances water is a POLAR molecule hydration breaks ionic compounds into anions and cations water dissolves different ionic compounds to different degrees (more in Ch 8) water also dissolves some nonionic substances if they are polar (ethanol-water) nonpolar substances are not dissolved (fats, oils) 3 5 Electronegativity and Polarity 6 Figure 4.1: A space-flling model oF the water molecule. More on molecular shapes in Ch 13. 4 7 8 Zumdahl Figure 4.2 Cation Anion Polar water molecules dissolve salts (ionic compounds) through hydration 5 9 Zumdahl Figure 4.3 LIKE DISSOLVING LIKE Ethanol Molecules are Polar (contain a directional O-H bond) 10 Electrical conductivity The fow oF electrical current in a solution is an indicator oF the presence oF ions in solution and the solubility oF ionic compounds. When sodium chloride dissolves in water the ions become solvated/hydrated , and are surrounded by water molecules. These ions are labeled aqueous , are Free to move throughout the solution, and conduct electricity (they help help electrons move through out the solution). NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl- (aq) Electrolyte A substance that conducts a current when dissolved in water....
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course CHEM 142A taught by Professor Campbell during the Summer '11 term at University of Washington.

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Ch 4_handouts - 1 1 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The...

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