Ch 5_handouts - 1 5.1 Early Experiments 5.2 The Gas Laws of...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1 5.1 Early Experiments 5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 5.4 Gas Stoichiometry 5.5 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures 5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 5.7 Effusion and Diffusion 5.8 Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls 5.9 Intermolecular Collisions 5.10 Real Gases (Frst 3 paragraphs, pgs 171 - 172) 5.11 Characteristics of Several Real Gases 5.12 Chemistry in the Atmosphere Chapter 5: Gases 2 Helium He 4.0 Neon Ne 20.2 Argon Ar 39.9 Hydrogen H 2 2.0 Nitrogen N 2 28.0 Nitrogen Monoxide NO 30.0 Oxygen O 2 32.0 Hydrogen Chloride HCl 36.5 Ozone O 3 48.0 Ammonia NH 3 17.0 Methane CH 4 16.0 Substance ormula MM ( g/mol ) Substances that are Gases under Normal Conditions 3 Name - Formula Origin and use Methane (CH 4 ) Natural deposits; domestic fuel Ammonia (NH 3 ) From N 2 + H 2 ; fertilizers, explosives Chlorine (Cl 2 ) Electrolysis of seawater; bleaching and disinfecting Oxygen (O 2 ) Liqueed air; steelmaking Ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) High-temperature decomposition of natural gas; plastics Some Important Industrial Gases 4 1) Gases are highly compressible An external force compresses the gas sample and decreases its volume; removing the external force allows the gas volume to increase. 2) Gases are thermally expandable When a gas sample is heated, its volume increases; when it is cooled its volume decreases. 3) Gases have low viscosity Gases ow much easier than liquids or solids. 4) Most gases have low densities Gas densities are on the order of grams per liter ,whereas liquids and solids are grams per cm 3 (mL), 1000 times greater. 5) Gases are infnitely miscible Gases mix in any proportion (air is a mixture of many gases). Important Characteristics oF Gases 5 Called atmospheric pressure the force exerted on earths surface by the gases in air the force exerted upon us by the atmosphere above us The force per unit area of these gases or a measure of the weight of the atmosphere pressing down upon us. Can be measured using a barometer a device that can weigh the atmosphere above us Pressure = Force Area Pressure of the Atmosphere 6 Figure 5.1: A Torricellian barometer. Density of Mercury = 13.6 g/cm 3 760 mm column of 1 cm 2 area weighs = 76 cm x 1 cm 2 x 13.6 g/cm 3 = 1030 g = 1.03 kg = 2.28 lbs P = force / area = 2.28 pounds / cm 2 = 14.7 pounds / in 2 = 1.00 atm 7 Unit Atmospheric Pressure Scientifc Field Used Pascal (Pa) = N/m 2 ; 1.01325 x 10 5 Pa SI unit; physics, kilopascal (kPa) 101.325 kPa Chemistry bar 1.01325 bar Meteorology, Chemistry atmosphere (atm) 1 atm Chemistry millimeters o mercury 760 mmHg Chemistry, medicine, (mmHg), also called 760 torr biology torr pounds per square inch 14.7 lb/in 2 Engineering (psi or lb/in 2 ) Common Units o Pressure 8 Problem: A chemist collects a sample of carbon dioxide from the decomposition of limestone (CaCO 3 ) in a closed-end manometer (i.e., vacuum is the reference pressure), the height of the mercury is...
View Full Document

Page1 / 47

Ch 5_handouts - 1 5.1 Early Experiments 5.2 The Gas Laws of...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online