Ch 7_handouts - 1 1 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The pH Scale 7.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7 Polyprotic Acids 7.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts 7.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration 7.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration 7.11 Strategy for solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary Chapter 7 Acids and Bases Midterm Exam 2 2 An acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and dissociates in water to yield a hydronium ion: H 3 O + (H + ) A base is a substance that contains the hydroxyl group and dissociates in water to yield a hydroxide ion: OH- Neutralization is the reaction of an H + (H 3 O + ) ion from the acid and the OH- ion from the base to form water, H 2 O. The neutralization reaction is exothermic and releases approximately 56 kJ per mole of acid and base that react. H + (aq) + OH- (aq) H 2 O (l) + 56 kJ/mol An indicator is a substance that changes color with acidity. Arrhenius (or Classical) Acid-Base DeFnition 2 3 An acid is a proton donor , any species that donates an H + ion. An acid must contain H in its formula; HNO 3 and H 2 PO 4- are two examples; all Arrhenius acids are Brnsted-Lowry acids. A base is a proton acceptor , any species that accepts an H + ion. A base must contain a lone pair of electrons to bind the H + ion; a few examples are NH 3 , CO 3 2- , F- , as well as OH- . Brnsted-Lowry bases are not Arrhenius bases, but all Arrhenius bases produce the Brnsted-Lowry base OH- . Therefore, in the Brnsted-Lowry perspective, one species donates a proton and another species accepts it: an acid-base reaction is a proton transfer process. Acids donate a proton to water Bases accept a proton from water Brnsted-Lowry Acid-Base Defnition 4 Water molecules can behave as a base or as an acid ! Acids donate a proton to water Bases accept a proton from water 3 5 Identify the Brnsted acids and bases in the following equation (A = Brnsted acid, B = Brnsted base): HPO 4 2 + HSO 4 H 2 PO 4 + SO 4 2 1. B, A, B, A 2. B, A, A, B 3. A, B, A, B 4. A, B, B, A 6 Acid Base Conjugate Conjugate acid base HA A The reaction of an acid HA with water to form H 3 O+ and a conjugate base Conjugate acid is formed when a proton is transferred to the base. Conjugate base is everything that remains of the acid molecule after a proton is lost. Conjugated acid-base pair consists of two substances related to each other by donating and accepting a single proton. Molecular Model of Conjugate Acids & Bases 4 7 Acid + Base Base + Acid Conjugate Pair Conjugate Pair Reaction 1 HF + H 2 O F + H 3 O + Reaction 2 HCOOH + CN HCOO + HCN Reaction 3 NH 4 + + CO 3 2 NH 3 + HCO 3 Reaction 4 H 2 PO 4 + OH HPO 4 2 + H 2 O Reaction 5 H 2 SO 4 + N 2 H 5 + HSO 4 + N 2 H 6 2+ Reaction 6 HPO 4 2 + SO 3 2 PO 4 3 + HSO 3 The Conjugate Pairs in Some Acid-Base Reactions...
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course CHEM 142A taught by Professor Campbell during the Summer '11 term at University of Washington.

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Ch 7_handouts - 1 1 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2...

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