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Final review - Seven properties of life 1 order atoms to...

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Seven properties of life: 1. order: atoms to ecosystems 2. Reproduction: includes meiosis, gamete formation and vegetative propagation: supremely important 3. Growth; development: the orderly process of cell division leading to a mature adult 4. energy utilization (metabolism): The process by which organisms derive energy from food to fuel cellular processes. 5. Response to the environment 6. Homeostasis: the ability to maintain an internal environment 7. Evolutionary Adaptation: adapt to environment (penguins and global warming). The ability of populations to adapt across generations Order: organization levels Proton atom molecules amino acids proteins nucleus cell muscle trunk elephant Water properties 1. Density: ice is less dense than liquid water a. The molecular movement is slowed down 2. Cohesion: effect of H bonds holding H2O molecules together a. Waters surface tension 3. Adhesion: water molecules polarity enables them to form stronger interactions with the molecules to paper 4. The ability to dissolve other substances: polar 5. High specific heat: resists temp. chance a. Allows it to tempur weather patterns on earth. Functional groups : molecular components attached to skeleton of organic molecules -OH hydroxyl group sugars, alcohols - C single bond to H and double to O is aldehyde sugars -C double bonded to O is ketone sugars -COOH or COO- is carboxyl sugars, fats, amino acids -NH2 or +NH3 is amino group amino acids proteins - P attached to 4 O’s with one double bond is phosphate ATP
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Macromolecules Carbs Monomer Func groups Bonds Ex Gen formula (CH2O)n Monosaccharid es -OH (alcohol) -C— O(aldehyd e or ketones) Glycosidi c Glucose Fructose Galactose ribose Disaccharides Sucrose( Gl and Fru) Lactose (glu and galac) Maltose( 2 gluc) Polysaccaride s Starch(amylose)storage Glycogen(amylopectin)stora ge Cellulose chitin Lipids Components Func. Groups Properties Identify Fat 1 glycerol +3 fatty acids Carbon skeleton chain Hydrophobic Stores a lot of energy Butter is straight branched Oil Same as fat Oil is kinky branched Steroids 4 fused carbon rings Cholesterol most basic structure Phospholipid 1 glycerol+ 2 fatty acids and phosphate rich head amphipathic Bilayer…cell membrance
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Proteins Monomers: amino acids Identify: draw amino acid Bond: peptide Functional group: Primary: sequence of amino acids : peptide Secondary: reinforced by H bonds: alpha helix H bonds Tertiary: reinforced side chain: all bonds Quaternary: union 4 differ polypeptides: hemoglobin: all bonds
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Nucleic acids: short chains: ATP, GTP, cyclic AMP, conenzymes…long chained: DNA, RNA - Nucleotide: phosphate group, 5 carbon (pentose) sugar, nitrogenous base - Nucleoside: no phosphate group - Nitrogenous bases: purines (Adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines ( cytosine thymine and uracil) - Sugar: pentose ring or hexose structure - Phosphates how many? 1, 2, or 3 in nucleotides…5’phosphate, 3’ OH..runs from 5’ to 3’ Introduction to Cells Organelles: a. nucleus: NPC? What gets in and what gets out?- water and other small molecules
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