Final Review - Final Exam Topic Sheet Chapter 1 6 classes...

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Final Exam Topic Sheet Chapter 1 6 classes of nutrients – fats, carbs, protein, vitamins, minerals, water energy yielding vs non energy yielding fat=9kcal/gram protein= 4kcal/gram carbs= 4kcal/gram , alcohol= 7kcal/gram- vitamins, minerals and water provide no energy inorganic vs. organic organic contains carbon inorganic doesnt nutritient composition of foods / humans what is a kilocalorie- 1000 calories energy yield for carbohydrates, fats, protein, alcohol calculate % fat in diet / meal Chapter 2 Dietary reference Intakes4 RDA – definition recommended daily allowence Nutrients supplied by different food groups – generally – carbs, protein, fat, vitamins minerals Labeling Enrichment vs. fortification Enrichment of flour.– which nutrients? B vitamins, iron, calcium, niacin, folic acid Ingredient lists % Daily Value – based on how many kcal diet- 2000 nutrient claims – good, high, fat-free, low Calculate % of nutrient in foods Chapter 3 Digestion – order of organs in GI tract including parts of small intestine - mouth, esphogus, stomache, small intestine ( duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine. emulsifies fat for digestion- bile made from cholesterol produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder Enzymes along GI tract (all organs). … functions lipase, protease, amylase Where are nutrients absorbed? Water, salts, fermentation end products Hydrochloric acid – functions- uncoils (denatures) protein strands Vascular vs lymphatics … which nutrients absorbed where Where do the nutrients go after absorption? Where is dietary fiber broken down … how? Effects of fiber, both negative and beneficial… effects of not enough fiber Hydrolysis vs condensation for all energy yielding nutrients Chapter 4 Simple carbohydrates (names, what made of?) monosaccharides and disaccharides made from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen….the sugars- sucrose, lactose, galactose, fructose, glucose Complex carbohydrate (names, what made of?) plant and animal starch, glycogen, fiber * Monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose 1. same number of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, 2. different arrangements – responsible for sweetness (fructose sweetest) * Disaccharides include: sucrose, maltose, lactose 1. sucrose: 1 fructose linked to 1 glucose
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2. maltose: 2 glucose units linked 3. lactose: 1 galactose linked with 1 glucose What are some food sources of each disaccharide Complex carbohydrates: -Starch: chains of glucose units (amylose/amylopectin) COMES FROM PLANTS a. function: energy b. food sources: grains/legumes/tubers/processed foods) -Glycogen: highly branched chains of glucose FOUND IN LIVER AND MUSCLES OF ANIMALS c. function: energy (storage form of glucose in animals) d. food sources: not appreciable in meats -Fibers: polysaccharide vs. non-polysaccharide (lignins) e. polysaccharides: long chains of glucose / sugar derived units f. function: plants-structural g. classification: dietary , functional Fibers – dietary / functional – definitions
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ARH 302 taught by Professor Dontremember during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Final Review - Final Exam Topic Sheet Chapter 1 6 classes...

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