Glycolysis2009 - David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox...

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1 David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox LEHNINGER PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY Fifth Edition CHAPTER 14 © 2008 W. H. Freeman and Company Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Major Pathways of Glucose Utilization Fig. 14-1
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2 Glycolysis is one of the best studied metabolic pathways Fructose 1 6 bisphosphate Cleavage of an activated hexose Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Studied since the beginning of the 20 th century Phase I of Glycolysis (Investment) Fig. 14-2
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3 Phase II of Glycolysis (Payoff) Fig. 14-2 Substrate Level Phosphorylation Phosphorylated intermediates are important because: 1. They cannot easily cross biomembranes 2. They conserve metabolic energy 3 They lower the activation energy of enzymes 3. They lower the activation energy of enzymes
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4 The Balance Sheet of Glycolysis: Glucose + 2NAD + + 2ADP + 2P i 2 pyruvate + 2NADH + 2H + +2ATP+2H O 2 pyruvate + 2NADH + 2H + 2ATP + 2 H 2 O Glucose + 2NAD + 2 pyruvate + 2NADH + 2H + Δ G’ ˚ = -85 kJ/mol 2ADP + 2P i 2ATP + 2 H 2 O Δ G’ ˚ = -146 kJ/mol Δ G’ ˚ = +61.0 kJ/mol The catabolic fate of pyruvate Fig. 14-3
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5 1. Phosphorylation of Glucose 2. Conversion of Glucose 6-P to Fructose 6-P
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6 P-Hexose Isomerase Reaction Mechanism Fig. 14-4 3. Phosphorylation of Fructose 6-P
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7 4. Cleavage of Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Class I Aldolase Reaction Mechanism Fig. 14-5
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8 Class I Aldolase Reaction Mechanism Fig. 14-5 Origin of Carbons in the Trioses Fig. 14-6
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9 Carbons in the Trioses are renumbered!
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Glycolysis2009 - David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox...

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