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ch14developdis - Abnormal Psychology An Integrative...

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Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 4th Edition, David H. Barlow Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders Chapter 14 Developmental Disorders
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Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 4th Edition, David H. Barlow Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders Nature of Developmental Psychopathology: An Overview Normal vs. Abnormal Development Developmental Psychopathology – children are not just ‘little adults!’ They are qualitatively different. Study of how disorders arise and change with time Disruption of early skills can affect later development Developmental Disorders Diagnosed first in infancy, childhood, or adolescence Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disorders Autism Mental retardation
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Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 4th Edition, David H. Barlow Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Overview Nature of ADHD Central features – Inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity Associated with numerous impairments Behavioral Cognitive Social and academic problems DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR Symptom Types Inattentive type Hyperactive type Impulsive type
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Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 4th Edition, David H. Barlow Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders ADHD: Facts and Statistics Prevalence Occurs in 6% of school-aged children Symptoms are usually present around age 3 or 4 68% of children with ADHD have problems as adults Gender Differences Boys outnumber girls 4 to 1 Cultural Factors Probability of ADHD diagnosis Greatest in the United States
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Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 4th Edition, David H. Barlow Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders ADHD: Sean
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Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 4th Edition, David H. Barlow Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders The Causes of ADHD: Biological Contributions Genetic Contributions ADHD seems to run in families DRD4, DAT1, and DRD5 genes have been implicated Neurobiological Contributions Smaller brain volume Inactivity of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia Abnormal frontal lobe development and functioning Precise neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear The Role of Toxins No evidence that allergens and food additives are causes Maternal smoking increases risk
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Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 4th Edition, David H. Barlow Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders The Causes of ADHD: Psychosocial Contributions Psychosocial Factors Can influence the nature of ADHD ADHD children are often viewed negatively by others Constant negative feedback from peers and adults Peer rejection and resulting social isolation Such factors foster low self-esteem
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Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 4th Edition, David H. Barlow Chapter 14: Developmental Disorders Biological Treatment of ADHD Goal of Biological Treatments To reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity To improve attention
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