2011+liquid+and+gaseous+fuels

2011+liquid+and+gaseous+fuels - Crude Oil Petroleum...

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1 Crude Oil Petroleum ("rock oil“) – first used in a treatise 1556 by a German mineralogist – Chinese still call it Rock Oil Also known as crude oil naturally occurring, flammable liquid found in rock formations in the Earth consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds
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2 Crude Oil The earliest known oil wells were drilled in China in 347 CE or earlier. – They had depths of up to about 800 feet (240 m) and were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles – The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. – By the 10th century, extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. Petroleum was known as burning water in Japan in the 7th century
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3 Reservoirs Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: – a source rock rich in hydrocarbon material buried deep enough for subterranean heat to cook it into oil – a porous and permeable reservoir rock for it to accumulate in – a cap rock (seal) or other mechanism that prevents it from escaping to the surface Within these reservoirs, fluids will typically organize themselves like a three-layer cake with a layer of water below the oil layer and a layer of gas above it
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4 Offshore Oil Cross-section A west-to-east cross section of the Balder reservoir, which is particularly complex. It consists of 11 disconnected oil structures and unconsolidated sandstone from the early Tertiary age.
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5 Drilling and Mud Circulation
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6 Casing Once they reach the pre-set depth stop drilling – Then they place casing-pipe sections into the hole to prevent it from collapsing in on itself. – The casing pipe has spacers around the outside to keep it centered in the hole. – Cement is then pumped to fill the space between the outside of the casing and the hole. Not needed after bedrock is reached
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Oil Derricks and Pumps 7
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8 Oil needs to be refined 1946 Standard Oil Film
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9 Petroleum Commercial petroleum fuels are divided into ASTM grades, which are based on the fuel viscosity Grade No. 6, otherwise known as Bunker "C" Fuel Oil, is the most widely used in power plants. Some of the advantages of oil is that it is – cleaner – easier to handle, store and transport – easier to burn than coal – produces little ash – oil can be atomized for a good mix with combustion air (for gas-like performance).
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10 Petroleum
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course ME 462 taught by Professor Muller during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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2011+liquid+and+gaseous+fuels - Crude Oil Petroleum...

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