1 - lkk dh lk>snkjh lkk dh lk>snkjh bl v;k; osQ lkFk ge...

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1 lÙkk dh lk>snkjh vè;k; 1 lÙkk dh lk>snkjh ifjp; bl vè;k; osQ lkFk ge yksdra=k dh ml ;k=kk dks vkxs c<+k,¡xs tks fiNys lky 'kq: gqbZ FkhA fiNys lky geus ns[kk Fkk fd yksdrkaf=kd O;oLFkk esa lkjh rkdr fdlh ,d vax rd lhfer ugha gksrhA fo/kf;dk] dk;Zikfydk vkSj U;k;ikfydk osQ chp iwjh le> osQ lkFk lÙkk dks foosaQfær dj nsuk yksdra=k osQ dkedkt osQ fy, cgqr ”k:jh gSA igys rhu vè;k;ksa esa ge lÙkk osQ c¡Vokjs ij lksp&fopkj dks vkxs c<+k,¡xsA vkb,] ge csfYt;e vkSj Jhyadk dh nks dFkkvksa osQ lkFk 'kq#vkr djrs gSaA ;s nksuksa ?kVuk,¡ crkrh gSa fd fofHkUu yksdrkaf=kd 'kklu i¼fr;k¡ lÙkk osQ c¡Vokjs dh ek¡x ls fdl rjg fuiVrh gSaA bu ?kVukvksa ls ;g le>us esa oqQN enn feysxh fd vkf[kj yksdra=k esa lÙkk osQ c¡Vokjs dh ”k:jr D;ksa gksrh gSA blls ge lÙkk osQ c¡Vokjs osQ mu :iksa ij ckrphr dj losaQxs ftudh ppkZ vxys nks vè;k;ksa esa dh xbZ gSA
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2 yksdrkaf=kd jktuhfr csfYt;e vkSj Jhyadk esjs fnekx esa lh/k lk lehdj.k ;g gS fd lÙkk dk c¡Vokjk ¾ lÙkk osQ VqdM+s djuk ¾ ns'k dks de”kksj djukA ge bl ckr ls 'kq#vkr D;ksa dj jgs gSa\ ,Fkuhd ;k tkrh; % ,slk lkekftd foHkktu ftlesa gj lewg viuh&viuh laLÑfr dks vyx ekurk gS ;kuh ;g lk>h laLÑfr ij vk/kfjr lkekftd foHkktu gSA fdlh Hkh tkrh; lewg osQ lHkh lnL; ekurs gSa fd mudh mRifÙk leku iwoZtksa ls gqbZ gS vkSj blh dkj.k mudh 'kkjhfjd cukoV vkSj laLÑfr ,d tSlh gSA ”k:jh ugha fd ,sls lewg osQ lnL; fdlh ,d /eZ osQ ekuus okys gksa ;k mudh jk"Vªh;rk ,d gksA csfYt;e osQ leqnk; vkSj {ks=k csfYt;e ;wjksi dk ,d NksVk&lk ns'k gS] {ks=kiQy esa gekjs gfj;k.kk jkT; ls Hkh NksVkA bldh lhek,¡ uhnjySaM] ;wozsQu vkSj teZuh ls yxrh gSaA bldh vkcknh ,d djksM+ ls FkksM+h vf/d gS ;kuh gfj;k.kk dh vkcknh ls djhc vk/hA bl NksVs ls ns'k osQ lekt dh tkrh; cqukoV cgqr tfVy gSA ns'k dh oqQy vkcknh dk 59 I + kQhlnh fgLlk Ýysfe'k bykosQ esa jgrk gS vkSj Mp cksyrk gSA 'ks"k 40 I + kQhlnh yksx osyksfu;k {ks=k esa jgrs gSa vkSj çsaQp cksyrs gSaA 'ks"k ,d I + kQhlnh yksx teZu cksyrs gSaA jkt/kuh cwzlsYl osQ 80 I + kQhlnh yksx çsaQp cksyrs gSa vkSj 20 I + kQhlnh yksx Mp Hkk"kkA vYila[;d çsaQp&Hkk"kh yksx rqyukRed :i ls ”;knk le`¼ vkSj rkdroj jgs gSaA cgqr ckn esa tkdj vkfFkZd fodkl vkSj f'k{kk dk ykHk ikus okys Mp&Hkk"kh yksxksa dks bl fLFkfr ls ukjk”kxh FkhA blosQ pyrs 1950 vkSj 1960 osQ n'kd esa çsaQp vkSj Mp cksyus okys lewgksa osQ chp ruko c<+us yxkA bu nksuksa leqnk;ksa osQ Vdjko dk lcls rh[kk :i czwlsYl esa fn[kkA ;g ,d fo'ks"k rjg dh leL;k FkhA Mp cksyus okys yksx la[;k osQ fglkc ls vis{kkÑr ”;knk Fks ysfdu /u vkSj le`f¼ osQ ekeys esa de”kksj vkSj vYier esa FksA vkb,] bl fLFkfr dh rqyuk ,d vkSj ns'k ls djsaA Jhyadk ,d }hih; ns'k gS tks rfeyukMq osQ nf{k.kh rV ls oqQN fdyksehVj dh nwjh ij fLFkr gSA bldh vkcknh djhc nks djksM+ gS ;kuh gfj;k.kk osQ cjkcjA nf{k.k ,f'k;k osQ vU; ns'kksa dh rjg Jhyadk dh vkcknh esa Hkh dbZ tkrh; lewgksa osQ yksx gSaA lcls çeq[k lkekftd lewg flagfy;ksa dk gS ftudh vkcknh oqQy tula[;k dh 74 I + kQhlnh gSA fiQj rfeyksa dk uacj vkrk gS ftudh vkcknh oqQy tula[;k esa 18 I + kQhlnh gSA rfeyksa esa Hkh nks lewg gSaμJhyadkbZ ewy osyksu (çsaQp&Hkk"kh) Ýysfe'k (Mp&Hkk"kh)
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course SOCIAL 3so taught by Professor Stevejoyce during the Fall '09 term at Central European University.

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1 - lkk dh lk>snkjh lkk dh lk>snkjh bl v;k; osQ lkFk ge...

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