8 - yksdra=k dh pqukSfr;k yksdra=k dh pqukSfr;k fiNys nks...

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101 yksdra=k dh pqukSfr;k¡ vè;k; 8 yksdra=k dh pqukSfr;k¡ ifjp; fiNys nks o"kksZa esa vkius ftruk oqQN lh[kk gS mloQks vk/kj ekudj ;g vafre vè;k; yksdrkaf=kd jktuhfr osQ cqfu;knh lokyksa osQ tokc nsus dh dksf'k'k djrk gS] tSlsμgekjs ns'k vkSj vU; txgksa ij yksdra=k osQ lkeus D;k&D;k pqukSfr;k¡ gSa\ yksdrkaf=kd jktuhfr dks lq/kjus osQ fy, D;k oqQN fd;k tk ldrk gS\ gekjh yksdrkaf=kd O;oLFkk vius cjrko vkSj urhtksa esa fdl rjg vkSj vf/d yksdrkaf=kd cu ldrh gS\ bl vè;k; esa bu lokyksa osQ tokc ugha gSaA ;g mu rjhdksa osQ ckjs esa flI + kZQ oqQN laosQr vkSj b'kkjs Hkj djrk gS ftuls ge bu pqukSfr;ksa vkSj lq/kjksa dh fn'kk esa vkxs c<+ ldrs gSaA ;g vè;k; vkidks [kqn vius rjhosQ ryk'kus vkSj pqukSfr;ksa ij thr ikus dk viuk jkLrk <w¡<+us rFkk yksdra=k oQks vius <ax ls ifjHkkf"kr djus dk fuea=k.k Hkh nsrk gSA
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102 yksdrkaf=kd jktuhfr ¯pru pqukSfr;ksa dk D;k vkidks d{kk&9 dh viuh jktuhfr foKku dh ikB~;iqLrd dk igyk vè;k; ;kn gS\ mlesa geus ns[kk fd fiNys lkS o"kks± esa nqfu;k&Hkj esa yksdra=k dk foLrkj oSQls gqvk gS\ mlosQ ckn dh i<+kbZ us gekjh bl 'kq#vkrh jk; dks iq"V gh fd;k gS fd ledkyhu fo'o esa yksdra=k 'kklu dk ,d çeq[k :i gSA bls dksbZ xaHkhj pqukSrh ugha gS vkSj u dksbZ nwljh 'kklu ç.kkyh bldh çfr}a}h gSA ysfdu yksdrkaf=kd jktuhfr osQ fofHkUu igyqvksa dh tc geus foLrkj ls ppkZ dh rks gesa oqQN vU; ph”ksa Hkh fn[kkbZ nhaA yksdra=k esa ftruh lkjh laHkkouk,¡ gSa nqfu;k esa vHkh dgha Hkh mu lcdk ykHk ugha mBk;k x;k gSA yksdra=k dk dksbZ çfr}a}h ugha gSμbldk ;g eryc Hkh ugha fd mlosQ fy, dksbZ pqukSrh gh ugha gSA yksdra=k dh viuh bl fdrkch ;k=kk osQ fofHkUu iM+koksa ij geus ns[kk gS fd nqfu;k&Hkj esa yksdrkaf=kd O;oLFkkvksa osQ lkeus xaHkhj pqukSfr;k¡ gSaA ;s pqukSfr;k¡ fdlh vke leL;k tSlh ugha gSaA ge vke rkSj ij mUgha eqf'dyksa dks ^pqukSrh* dgrs gSa tks egRoiw.kZ rks gaS] ysfdu ftu ij thr Hkh gkfly dh tk ldrh gSA vxj fdlh eqf'dy osQ Hkhrj ,slh laHkkouk gS fd ml eqf'dy ls NqVdkjk fey losQ rks mls ge pqukSrh dgrs gSaA ,d ckj tc ge pqukSrh ls ikj ik ysrs gSa rks ge igys dh vis{kk oqQN dne vkxs c<+ tkrs gSaA vyx&vyx ns'kksa osQ lkeus vyx&vyx rjg dh pqukSfr;k¡ gksrh gSaA vkidh ikB~;iqLrd esa ,d ekufp=k fn;k x;k FkkA blesa lu~ 2000 rd dh yksdrkaf=kd ljdkjksa dks fn[kk;k x;k FkkA D;k vkidks bl ekufp=k dh ;kn gS\ rc dk ;g uD'kk crkrk gS fd nqfu;k osQ ,d pkSFkkbZ fgLls esa vHkh Hkh yksdrkaf=kd 'kklu O;oLFkk ugha gSA bu bykdksa esa yksdra=k osQ fy, cgqr gh eqf'dy pqukSfr;k¡ gaSA bu ns'kksa esa yksdrkaf=kd O;oLFkk dh rjiQ tkus vkSj yksdrkaf=kd ljdkj xfBr djus osQ fy, ”k:jh cqfu;knh vk/kj cukus dh pqukSrh gSA buesa ekStwnk xSj&yksdrkaf=kd 'kklu O;oLFkk dks fxjkus] lÙkk ij lsuk osQ fu;a=k.k dks lekIr djus vkSj ,d laçHkq rFkk dkjxj 'kklu O;oLFkk dks LFkkfir djus dh pqukSrh gSA vf/dka'k LFkkfir yksdrkaf=kd O;oLFkkvksa osQ lkeus vius foLrkj dh pqukSrh gSA blesa yksdrkaf=kd 'kklu osQ cqfu;knh fl¼karksa dks lHkh bykdksa] lHkh lkekftd lewgksa vkSj fofHkUu laLFkkvksa esa ykxw djuk 'kkfey gSA LFkkuh; ljdkjksa dks vf/d vf/dkjμlaiUu cukuk] la?k dh lHkh bdkb;ksa osQ fy, la?k osQ fl¼karksa dks O;kogkfjd Lrj ij
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course SOCIAL 3so taught by Professor Stevejoyce during the Fall '09 term at Central European University.

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8 - yksdra=k dh pqukSfr;k yksdra=k dh pqukSfr;k fiNys nks...

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