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Chapter 1 - Can you identify and name the various items...

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Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’. The process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an inter- dependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions. Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development. Do you think that resources are free gifts of nature as is assumed by many? They are not. Resources are a function of human activities. Human beings themselves are essential components of resources. They transform material available in our environment into resources and use them. These resources can be classified in the following ways– (a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic (b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable (c) On the basis of ownership – individual, community, national and international (d) On the basis of status of development – potential, developed stock and reserves. Can you identify and name the various items used in making life comfortable in our villages and towns. List the items and name the material used in their making. Fig. 1.1: Interdependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions Fig. 1.2: Classification of resources
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2 C ONTEMPORARY I NDIA – II T YPES OF R ESOURCES On the Basis of Origin Biotic Resources: These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc. Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals. On the Basis of Exhaustibility Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc. The renewable resource may further be divided into continuous or flow (Fig.1.2). Non-Renewable Resources: These occur over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use. On the Basis of Ownership Individual Resources: These are also owned privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by government against the payment of revenue. In villages there are people with land ownership but there are many who are landless. Urban people own plots, houses and other property. Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are some of the examples of resources ownership by individuals. Make a list of resources owned by your household.
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