CHAP 1 - v;k; 1 jklk;fud vfHkf;k, ,oa lehdj.k ius nSfud...

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jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k,¡ ,oa lehdj.k 1 vè;k; ius nSfud thou dh fuEufyf[kr ifjfLFkfr;ksa ij è;ku nhft, vkSj fopkj dhft, fd D;k gksrk gS tc ± XkfeZ;ksa esa dejs osQ rki ij nwèk dks [kqyk NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA ± yksgs dk [email protected]@dhy dks vknzZ ok;qeaMy esa [kqyk NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA ± vaxwj dk fd.ou gks tkrk gSA ± Hkkstu Ikdk;k tkrk gSA ± gekjk 'kjhj Hkkstu dks Ikpk ysrk gSA ± ge lk¡l ysrs gSaA bu lHkh IkfjfLFkfr;ksa esa IkzkjafHkd oLrq dh Ikzd`fr rFkk Ikgpku dqN u dqN cny tkrh gSA IknkFkZ osQ HkkSfrd rFkk jklk;fud ifjorZuksa osQ ckjs esa ge fiNyh d{kkvksa esa i<+ pqosQ gSaA tc dksbZ jklk;fud ifjorZu gksrk gS rks ge dg ldrs gSa fd ,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k gqbZ gSA vki 'kk;n lksp jgs gksaxs fd jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k dk okLrfod vFkZ D;k gSA ge oSQls tku ldrs gSa fd dksbZ jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k gqbZ gS\ bu Ikz'uksa osQ mÙkj Ikkus osQ fy, vkb, ge dqN fØ;kdyki djrs gSaA fp=k 1-1 eSXuhf'k;e fjcu dk ok;q esa ngu dj eSXuhf'k;e vkWDlkbM dks okWp Xykl esa bdêòk djuk fØ;kdyki 1-1 lkoèkkuh% bl fØ;kdyki esa f'k{kd osQ lg;ksx dh vko';drk gSA lqj{kk osQ fy, Nk=k vk¡[kksa ij p'ek igu ysa rks mfpr gksxkA ± yxHkx 2 cm yacs eSXuhf'k;e fjcu dks jsxeky ls jxM+dj lki + Q dj yhft,A ± bls fpeVs ls idM+dj fLifjV ySai ;k cuZj ls bldk ngu dfj, rFkk blls cuh jk[k dks okWp Xykl esa bdêòk dj yhft, tSlk fd fp=k 1-1 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA eSXuhf'k;e fjcu dk ngu djrs le; bls viuh vk¡[kksa ls ;FkklaHko nwj jf[k,A ± vkius D;k izs{k.k fd;k\ fpeVk eSXuhf'k;e fjcu okWp Xykl eSXuhf'k;e vkWDlkbM cuZj v
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foKku 2 fp=k 1-2 nkusnkj tLrs Ikj ruq lYÝ + ;wfjd vEy dh vfHkfØ;k ls gkbMªkstu xSl dk fuekZ.k Åij fn, x, rhuksa fØ;kdykiksa osQ vkèkkj ij ge dg ldrs gSa fd fuEu fdlh Hkh izs{k.k dh lgk;rk ls ge fuèkkZfjr dj ldrs gSa fd ,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k gqbZ gS& ± voLFkk esa ifjorZu ± jax esa ifjorZu ± xSl dk [email protected] ± rkieku esa ifjorZu ;fn ge vius vklikl gks jgs IkfjorZuksa dks ns[ksa] rks Ikk,¡xs fd gekjs pkjksa vksj fofoèk Ikzdkj dh jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k,¡ gks jgh gSaA bl vè;k; esa ge fofHkUu Ikzdkj dh jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa vkSj muosQ IkzrhdkRed fu:i.k dk vè;;u djsaxsA 1.1 jklk;fud lehdj.k fØ;kdyki 1-1 dk fooj.k% tc vkWDlhtu dh mifLFkfr esa eSXuhf'k;e fjcu dk ngu gksrk gS rc ;g eSXuhf'k;e vkWDlkbM esa IkfjofrZr gks tkrk gSA okD; osQ :Ik esa fdlh jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k dk fooj.k cgqr yack gks tkrk gSA bls laf{kIr :Ik esa Hkh fy[kk tk ldrk gSA bls 'kCn&lehdj.k osQ :Ik esa fy[kuk lcls ljyre fofèk gSA Åij nh xbZ vfHkfØ;k dk 'kCn&lehdj.k bl Ikzdkj gksxk% eSXuhf'k;e $ vkWDlhtu eSXuhf'k;e vkWDlkbM (1-1) (vfHkdkjd) (mRikn) vfHkfØ;k (1-1) esa eSXuhf'k;e rFkk vkWDlhtu ,sls inkFkZ gSa ftuesa jklk;fud ifjorZu gksrk gS] bUgsa vfHkdkjd dgrs gSaA bl vfHkfØ;k ls ,d u, inkFkZ eSXuhf'k;e vkWDlkbM dk fuekZ.k gksrk gS] bls mRikn dgrs gSaA fØ;kdyki 1-3 ± ,d 'kaDokdkj Ý + ykLd ;k Ikj[kuyh esa oqQN nkusnkj ¯td yhft,A ± blesa ruq gkbMªksDyksfjd vEy ;k lYÝ + ;wfjd vEy feyk nhft, (fp=k 1-2) lkoèkkuh% vEy dk bLrseky lkoèkkuh ls dhft,A ± D;k tLrs osQ nkuksa osQ vklikl dqN gksrk fn[kkbZ ns jgk gS\ ±
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course SCIENCE 3SE taught by Professor Johnmanual during the Fall '09 term at Central European University.

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CHAP 1 - v;k; 1 jklk;fud vfHkf;k, ,oa lehdj.k ius nSfud...

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