CHAP 2 - v;k; 2 vEy] cfw_kkjd ,oa yo.k ius fiNyh...

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vEy] {kkjd ,oa yo.k 2 vè;k; ius fiNyh d{kkvksa esa vè;;u fd;k gksxk fd Hkkstu dk [kV~Vk ,oa dM+ok Lokn Hkkstu esa fo|eku Øe'k% vEy ,oa {kkjd osQ dkj.k gksrk gSA ;fn vkiosQ ifjokj dk dksbZ lnL; vR;f/d Hkkstu djus osQ dkj.k vEyrk ls ihfM+r gS rks vki dkSu lk mipkj lq>k,¡xs\ uhacw ikuh] fljdk ;k cs¯dx lksMk dk foy;u\ ± mipkj crkrs le; vki fdl xq.kèkeZ dk è;ku j[ksaxs\ vki tkurs gSa fd vEy ,oa {kkjd ,d nwljs osQ IkzHkko dks lekIr djrs gSaA vkius vo'; gh blh tkudkjh dk mi;ksx fd;k gksxkA ± ;kn dhft, fd oSQls geus fcuk Lokn p[ks gh [kV~Vs ,oa dM+os IknkFkksaZ dh tk¡p dh FkhA vki tkurs gSa fd vEyksa dk Lokn [kV~Vk gksrk gS rFkk ;g uhys fyVel Ik=k dks yky dj nsrs gSaA tcfd {kkjdksa dk Lokn dM+ok gksrk gS ,oa ;g yky fyVel i=k dks uhyk dj nsrs gSaA fyVel ,d IkzkÑfrd lwpd gksrk gSA blh izdkj gYnh (turmeric) Hkh ,d ,slk gh lwpd gSA D;k vkius dHkh è;ku fn;k gS fd 'osr diM+s Ikj yxs lCth osQ nkx Ikj tc {kkjdh; IkzÑfr okyk lkcqu jxM+rs gSa rc ml èkCcs dk jax Hkwjk&yky gks tkrk gS\ ysfdu diM+s dks vR;fèkd ty ls èkksus osQ i'pkr~ og fiQj ls Ikhys jax dk gks tkrk gSA vEy ,oa {kkjd dh tka¡p osQ fy, vki la'ysf"kr (synthetic) lwpd tSls esfFky vkWjsat (methyl orange) ,oa iQhukWYiQFksfyu (phenolphthalein) dk Hkh mi;ksx dj ldrs gSaA bl vè;k; esa ge vEy ,oa {kkjd dh vfHkfØ;kvksa osQ ckjs esa vè;;u djsaxsA gesa tkudkjh izkIr gksxh fd vEy ,oa {kkjd oSQls ,d nwljs osQ IkzHkko dks lekIr dj nsrs gaSA lkFk gh nSfud thou esa ik;h tkus okyh rFkk mi;ksx esa vkus okyh cgqr lh jkspd oLrqvksa osQ ckjs esa Hkh ge vè;;u djsaxsA D;k vki tkurs gSa\ fyVel foy;u cSaxuh jax dk jatd gksrk gS tks FkSyksi + QkbVk lewg osQ fypsu (lichen) ikSèks ls fudkyk tkrk gSA izk;% bls lwpd dh rjg mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA fyVel foy;u tc u rks vEyh; gksrk gS u gh {kkjdh;] rc ;g cSaxuh jax dk gksrk gSA cgqr lkjs izkÑfrd inkFkZ_ tSlsμyky IkÙkk xksHkh] gYnh] gk;Mªsaft;k] isVwfu;k ,oa tsjkfu;e tSls dbZ IkQwyksa dh jaxhu Ika[kqfM+;k¡ fdlh foy;u esa vEy ,oa {kkjd dh mifLFkfr dks lwfpr djrs gSaA bUgsa vEy&{kkjd lwpd ;k dHkh&dHkh osQoy lwpd dgrs gSaA vk
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foKku 20 ? iz'u 1- vkidks rhu Ikj[kufy;k¡ nh xbZ gSaA buesa ls ,d esa vklfor ty ,oa 'ks"k nks esa ls ,d esa vEyh; foy;u rFkk nwljs esa {kkjh; foy;u gSA ;fn vkidks osQoy yky fyVel Ik=k fn;k tkrk gS rks vki IkzR;sd Ikj[kuyh esa j[ks x, IknkFkks± dh Ikgpku oSQls djsaxs\ 2.1 vEy ,oa {kkjd osQ jklk;fud xq.kèkeZ le>uk 2.1.1 Ikz;ksx'kkyk esa vEy ,oa {kkjd fØ;kdyki 2-1 ± foKku oQh Ikz;ksx'kkyk ls gkbMªksDyksfjd vEy (HCl) ] lYÝ + ;wfjd vEy (H 2 SO 4 ) ] ukbfVªd vEy (HNO 3 ) ] ,slhfVd vEy (CH 3 COOH) ] lksfM;e gkbMªkWDlkbM (NaOH) ] oSQfYl;e gkbMªkWDlkbM ([Ca(OH) 2 ])] IkksVSf'k;e gkbMªkWDlkbM (KOH) eSXuhf'k;e gkbMªkWDlkbM ([Mg(OH) 2 ]) ,oa veksfu;e gkbMªkWDlkbM (NH 4 OH) osQ uewus ,d=k dhft,A ± Åij fn, x, IkzR;sd foy;u dh ,d cw¡n okp Xykl esa jf[k, ,oa lkj.kh 2-1 osQ vuqlkj fuEufyf[kr lwpdksa ls mldh tk¡p dhft,A ± yky fyVel] uhys fyVel] iQsukWyIFksfy;u ,oa esfFky vkWjsat foy;u osQ lkFk fy, x, foy;u osQ jax esa D;k&D;k ifjorZu gksrs gaS\ ± vius izs{k.k dks lkj.kh 2-1 esa fyf[k,A lkj.kh 2-1 foy;u dk yky fyVel uhyk fyVel iQhukWYiQFksfyu esfFky vkWjsat uewuk foy;u foy;u foy;u foy;u
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course SCIENCE 3SE taught by Professor Johnmanual during the Fall '09 term at Central European University.

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CHAP 2 - v;k; 2 vEy] cfw_kkjd ,oa yo.k ius fiNyh...

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