CHAP 3 - v;k; 3 kkrq ,oa vkkrq ukS oha dcfw_kk esa vkius...

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èkkrq ,oa vèkkrq 3 vè;k; oha d{kk esa vkius dbZ rRoksa osQ ckjs esa Ik<+k gksxkA vkius ns[kk fd fdl izdkj rRoksa dks muosQ xq.kèkeksZa osQ vkèkkj ij èkkrq ,oa vèkkrq esa oxhZÑr fd;k tkrk gSA ± vius nSfud thou esa èkkrq ,oa vèkkrq osQ mi;ksxksa Ikj fopkj dhft,A ± vkiosQ fopkj ls dkSu ls xq.kèkeZ rRoksa dks èkkrq ,oa vèkkrq esa oxhZÑr djrs gSa\ ± fdl Ikzdkj ;g xq.kèkeZ bu rRoksa osQ mi;ksx ls lacafèkr gS\ ge buosQ dqN xq.kèkeksZa dk foLrkj ls vè;;u djsaxsA 3.1 3.1 HkkSfrd xq.kèkeZ 3.1.1 èkkrq bu inkFkks± osQ HkkSfrd xq.kèkeksZa dh rqyuk djosQ lewgksa esa vyx djuk lcls vklku gSA buosQ vè;;u osQ fy, ge fuEu fØ;kdykikas dh lgk;rk ysrs gSaA vuqHkkx 3-1 ls 3-6 esa fn, x, fØ;kdykiksa osQ fy, fuEu èkkrqvksaμvk;ju] dkWij] ,sYkqfefu;e] eSXuhf'k;e] lksfM;e] ysM] ¯td rFkk vklkuh ls feyus okyh dqN vU; èkkrqvksa osQ uewus bdêò s dhft,A fØ;kdyki 3-1 ± vk;ju] dkWij] ,sYkqfefu;e vkSj eSXuhf';e osQ uewus yhft,A izR;sd uewuk dSlk fn[kkbZ nsrk gS ml ij è;ku nhft,A ± jsxeky ls jxM+dj izR;sd uewus dh lrg dks lki + Q djosQ mlosQ Lo:Ik Ikj fiQj è;ku nhft,A vius 'kq¼ :i esa èkkrq dh lrg pednkj gksrh gSA èkkrq osQ bl xq.kèkeZ dks èkkfRod ped dgrs gSaA ukS
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foKku 42 vki ns[ksaxs fd dqN èkkrqvksa dks IkhVdj Ikryh pknj cuk;k tk ldrk gSA bl xq.kèkeZ dks vk?kkroè;Zrk dgrs gSaA D;k vki tkurs gSa fd lksuk rFkk pk¡nh lcls vfèkd vk?kkroè;Z èkkrq,¡ gSa\ fØ;kdyki 3-3 ± vk;ju] ftad] ysM rFkk dkWij osQ VqdM+s yhft,A ± fdlh ,d èkkrq dks yksgs osQ CykWd ([kaM) Ikj j[kdj pkj&ik¡p ckj gFkkSM+s ls izgkj dhft,A vkius D;k ns[kk\ ± vU; èkkrqvksa osQ lkFk Hkh ;gh fØ;k dhft,A ± bu èkkrqvksa osQ vkdkj esa gq, ifjorZu dks fyf[k,A fØ;kdyki 3-4 ± vk;ju] dkWij] ,sYkqfefu;e] ysM vkfn tSlh dqN èkkrqvksa ij è;ku nhft,A ± buesa dkSu lh èkkrq,¡ rkj osQ :i esa Hkh miyCèk gSaA èkkrq osQ Ikrys rkj osQ :i esa [khapus dh {kerk dks rU;rk dgk tkrk gSA lksuk lcls vfèkd rU; èkkrq gSA vkidks ;g tkudj vk'p;Z gksxk fd ,d xzke lksus ls 2 km yack rkj cuk;k tk ldrk gSA vk?kkroè;Zrk rFkk rU;rk osQ dkj.k èkkrqvksa dks gekjh vko';drk osQ vuqlkj fofHkUu vkdkj fn, tk ldrs gSaA D;k vki dqN èkkrqvksa osQ uke crk ldrs gSa ftudk mi;ksx [kkuk idkus osQ crZu cukus osQ fy, gksrk gS\ D;k vki tkurs gSa bu èkkrqvksa dk mi;ksx crZuksa oQks cukus osQ fy, D;ksa fd;k tkrk gS\ bldk mÙkj ikus osQ fy, vkb, ge fuEu fØ;kdyki djrs gSaA fØ;kdyki 3-2 ± vk;ju] dkWij ,sYkqfefu;e rFkk eSXuhf'k;e dk ,d NksVk VqdM+k yhft,A bu èkkrqvksa dks rst èkkj okys pkdw ls dkVus dk iz;kl dhft, rFkk vius izs{k.kksa dks fyf[k,A ± fpeVs ls lksfM;e èkkrq dk ,d VqdM+k idfM+,A lkoèkkuh% lksfM;e èkkrq dk mi;ksx djrs le; ges'kk lkoèkku jfg,A fiQYVj isij osQ chp nckdj bls lq[kk yhft,A ± okp&Xykl ij j[kdj bls pkdw ls dkVus dk iz;kl dhft,A ± vkius D;k ns[kk\ vki ns[ksaxs fd èkkrq,¡ lkekU;r% dBksj gksrh gSaA izR;sd èkkrq dh dBksjrk vyx&vyx gksrh gSA
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/krq ,oa v/krq 43 vkius vo'; ns[kk gksxk fd ftl rkj ls vkiosQ ?kj rd fctyh Ikg¡qprh gS ml ij ikWfyokbfuy DyksjkbM ( PVC) vFkok jcM+ tSlh lkexzh dh ijr p<+h gksrh gSA fo|qr rkj ij ,sls IknkFkks± dh Ikjr D;ksa gksrh gS\
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course SCIENCE 3SE taught by Professor Johnmanual during the Fall '09 term at Central European University.

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CHAP 3 - v;k; 3 kkrq ,oa vkkrq ukS oha dcfw_kk esa vkius...

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