CHAP 12_H - v;k; 12 fo|qr |qr dk vkkqfud lekt esa ,d...

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12 |qr dk vkèkqfud lekt esa ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku gSA ;g ?kjksa] fo|ky;ksa] vLirkyksa] m|ksxksa rFkk ,sls gh vU; laLFkkuksa osQ fofoèk mi;ksxksa osQ fy, ,d fu;af=kr dj ldus ;ksX; vkSj lqfoèkktud ÅtkZ dk :i gSA og D;k gS ftlls fo|qr curh gS\ fdlh fo|qr ifjiFk esa ;g dSls izokfgr gksrh gS\ og dkSu ls dkjd gSa tks fdlh fo|qr ifjiFk dh fo|qr èkkjk dks fu;af=kr vFkok fu;fer djrs gSaA bl vè;k; esa ge bl izdkj osQ iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nsus dk iz;kl djsaxsA ge fo|qr èkkjk osQ Å"eh; izHkko rFkk blosQ vuqiz;ksxksa ij Hkh ppkZ djsaxsA 12.1 fo|qr èkkjk vkSj ifjiFk ge ok;q èkkjk rFkk ty èkkjk ls ifjfpr gSaA ge tkurs gSa fd cgrs gq, ty ls ufn;ksa esa ty èkkjk curh gSA blh izdkj ;fn fo|qr vkos'k fdlh pkyd esa ls izokfgr gksrk gS (mnkgj.k osQ fy, fdlh èkkrq osQ rkj esa ls) rc ge ;g dgrs gSa fd pkyd esa fo|qr èkkjk gSA ge tkurs gSa fd fdlh VkWpZ esa lsy (vFkok cSVjh] tc mfpr Øe esa j[ks tkrs gSa) VkWpZ cYc dks nhfIr osQ fy, vkos'k dk izokg vFkok fo|qr èkkjk iznku djrs gSaA geus ;g Hkh ns[kk gS fd VkWpZ rHkh izdk'k nsrh gS tc mlosQ fLop dks ^vkWu* djrs gSaA fLop D;k dk;Z djrk gS\ fLop lsy rFkk cYc osQ chp pkyd lacaèk tksM+rk gSA fdlh fo|qr èkkjk osQ lrr rFkk can iFk dks fo|qr ifjiFk dgrs gSaA vc] ;fn ifjiFk dgha ls VwV tk, (vFkok VkWpZ osQ fLop dks ^vkWiQ* dj nsa) rks fo|qr èkkjk dk izokg lekIr gks tkrk gS rFkk cYc nhfIr ugha djrkA ge fo|qr èkkjk dks dSls O;Dr djsa\ fo|qr èkkjk dks ,dkad le; esa fdlh fo'ks"k {ks=k ls izokfgr vkos'k osQ ifjek.k }kjk O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa] fo|qr vkos'k osQ izokg dh nj dks fo|qr èkkjk dgrs gSaA mu ifjiFkksa esa ftuesa èkkrq osQ rkj mi;ksx gksrs gaS] vkos'kksa osQ izokg dh jpuk bysDVªkWu djrs gSaA rFkkfi] ftl le; fo|qr dh ifj?kVuk dk loZizFke isz{k.k fd;k x;k Fkk] bysDVªkWuksa osQ ckjs esa dksbZ tkudkjh ugha FkhA vr% fo|qr èkkjk dks èkukos'kksa dk izokg ekuk x;k rFkk èkukos'k osQ izokg dh fn'kk dks gh fo|qr èkkjk dh fn'kk ekuk x;kA ifjikVh osQ vuqlkj fdlh fo|qr ifjiFk esa bysDVªkWuksa tks ½.kkos'k gSa] osQ izokg dh fn'kk osQ foijhr fn'kk dks fo|qr èkkjk dh fn'kk ekuk tkrk gSA fo|qr vè;k; fo
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222 foKku ;fn fdlh pkyd dh fdlh Hkh vuqizLFk dkV ls le; t esa usV vkos'k Q izokfgr gksrk gS rc ml vuqizLFk dkV ls izokfgr fo|qr èkkjk I dks bl izdkj O;Dr djrs gSa% I Q t = (12.1) fo|qr vkos'k dk SI ek=kd dwykWe (C) gS] tks yxHkx 6 10 18 bysDVªkWuksa esa lek, vkos'k osQ rqY; gksrk gS (ge tkurs gSa fd ,d bysDVªkWu ij 1.6 10 –19 C vkos'k gksrk gS)A fo|qr èkkjk dks ,d ek=kd ftls ,sfEi;j (A) dgrs gSa] esa O;Dr fd;k tkrk gS] bl ek=kd dk uke vkanzs&esjh ,sfEi;j (1775-1836) uke osQ Úkalhlh oSKkfud osQ uke ij j[kk x;k gSA ,d ,sfEi;j fo|qr èkkjk dh jpuk izfr lsoaQM ,d dwykWe vkos'k osQ izokg ls gksrh gS] vFkkZr 1 A = 1 C/1 s vYi ifjek.k dh fo|qr èkkjk dks fefy,sfEi;j (1 mA = 10 –3 A) vFkok ekbØks,sfEi;j (1 μ A = 10 –6 A) esa O;Dr djrs gSaA ifjiFkksa dh fo|qr èkkjk ekius osQ fy, ftl ;a=k dk mi;ksx djrs gSa mls ,sehVj dgrs gSaA bls lnSo ftl ifjiFk esa fo|qr èkkjk ekiuh gksrh gS] mlosQ Js.khØe esa la;ksftr djrs gSaA fp=k 12.1 esa ,d izrhdkRed fo|qr ifjiFk dk O;oLFkk vkjs[k fn[kk;k x;k gS ftlesa ,d lsy] ,d fo|qr
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course SCIENCE 3SE taught by Professor Johnmanual during the Fall '09 term at Central European University.

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CHAP 12_H - v;k; 12 fo|qr |qr dk vkkqfud lekt esa ,d...

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