CHAP 13_H - fo|qr /kjk osQ pqacdh; izHkko 13 vè;k;...

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Unformatted text preview: fo|qr /kjk osQ pqacdh; izHkko 13 vè;k; fØ;kdyki 13-1 fp=k 13-1 /krq osQ pkyd ls fo|qr /kjk izokfgr djkus ij fno~Qlwpd lqbZ fo{ksfir gksrh gSA |qr osQ fiNys vè;k; esa geus fo|qr /kjk osQ rkih; izHkkoksa osQ ckjs esa vè;;u fd;k FkkA fo|qr /kjk osQ vU; izHkko D;k gks ldrs gSa\ ge tkurs gSa fd fo|qr èkkjkokgh rkj pqacd dh Hkk¡fr O;ogkj djrk gSA bl rF; dk iqu% voyksdu djus osQ fy, vkb, ,d fØ;kdyki djrs gSaA ¡ rk¡cs dk ,d lh/k eksVk rkj yhft, rFkk bls fp=k 13-1 esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj fo|qr ifjiFk osQ nks fcanqvksa X rFkk Y osQ chp jf[k,A ¡ bl rk¡cs osQ rkj osQ fudV ,d NksVh fnd~lwpd jf[k,A bldh lqbZ dh fLFkfr uksV dhft,A ¡ Iyx esa oqaQth yxkdj fo|qr ifjiFk esa fo|qr /kjk izokfgr djkb,A ¡ fno~Qlwpd lqbZ dh fLFkfr esa ifjorZu dk izs{k.k dhft,A 19oha 'krkCnh osQ vxz.kh oSKkfudksa esa ls ,d] gSal fØf'p;u vkWLVsZM us oS|qrpqacdRo dks le>us esa ,d fu.kkZ;d Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA lu~ 1820 bZ- esa mUgksaus vdLekr ;g [kkstk fd fdlh /krq osQ rkj esa fo|qr èkkjk izokfgr djus ij ikl esa j[kh fno~Qlwph esa fo{ksi mRiUu gqvkA vius izs{k.kkas osQ vk/kj ij vkWLVsZM us ;g izekf.kr fd;k fd fo|qr rFkk pqacdRo ijLij lacaf/r ifj?kVuk,¡ gSaA muosQ vuqla/ku us vkxs tkdj u;h&u;h izkS|ksfxfd;ksa_ tSlsμjsfM;ks] Vsyhfotu] rarq izdkf'kdh vkfn dk l`tu fd;kA mUgha osQ lEeku esa pqacdh; {ks=k dh rhozrk dk ek=kd vkWLVsZM j[kk x;k gSA gSal fØf'p;u vkWLVsZM (1777&1851) ge ns[krs gSa fd lqbZ fo{ksfir gks tkrh gSA bldk D;k rkRi;Z gS\ bldk ;g vFkZ gS fd rk¡cs osQ rkj ls izokfgr fo|qr /kjk us ,d pqacdh; izHkko mRiUu fd;k gSA bl izdkj ge ;g dg ldrs gSa fd fo|qr vkSj pqacdRo ,d&nwljs ls lacaf/r gSaA fo foKku 250 iz'u ? fp=k 13-2 NM+ pqacd osQ fudV dk ykSg&pw.kZ Lo;a gh pqacdh; {ks=k js[kkvksa osQ vuqfn'k lajsf[kr gks tkrk gS rc xfreku pqacdksa osQ fo|qrh; izHkko dh mRØfer laHkkouk osQ fo"k; esa vki D;k dg ldrs gSa\ bl vè;k; esa ge pqacdh; {ks=kksa rFkk blh izdkj osQ fo|qr&pqacdh; izHkkoksa dk vè;;u djsaxsA ge fo|qr&pqacdksa rFkk fo|qr eksVjksa osQ fo"k; esa Hkh vè;;u djsaxs tks fo|qr /kjk osQ pqacdh; izHkko ij vk/kfjr gksrk gSA blosQ lkFk gh ge fo|qr tfu=k osQ fo"k; esa Hkh tkudkjh izkIr djsaxs tks xfreku pqacdksa osQ fo|qrh; izHkko ij vkèkkfjr gSA 13-1 pqacdh; {ks=k vkSj {ks=k js[kk,¡ ge bl rF; ls HkyhHkk¡fr ifjfpr gSa fd fdlh NM+ pqacd osQ fudV ykus ij fno~Qlwpd dh lqbZ fo{ksfir gks tkrh gSA okLro eas fno~QLkwpd dh lqbZ ,d NksVk NM+ pqacd gh gksrh gSA fdlh fno~Qlwpd dh lqbZ osQ nksuksa fljs yxHkx mÙkj vkSj nf{k.k fn'kkvksa dh vksj laosQr djrs gSaA mÙkj fn'kk dh vksj laosQr djus okys fljs dks mÙkjkseq[kh /zqo vFkok mÙkj /zqo dgrs gSaA nwljk fljk tks nf{k.k fn'kk dh vksj laosQr djrk gS mls nf{k.kkseq[kh /zqo vFkok nf{k.k /zqo dgrs gSaA fofo/ fØ;kdykiksa osQ }kjk geus ;g izs{k.k fd;k gS fd pqacdksa osQ ltkrh; /zqoksa esa ijLij izfrd"kZ.k rFkk fotkrh; /zqoksa esa ijLij vkd"kZ.k gksrk gSA 1- pqacd osQ fudV ykus ij fno~Qlwpd dh lqbZ fo{ksfir D;ksa gks tkrh gS\ fØ;kdyki 13-2 ¡ fdlh fpifpis inkFkZ dk mi;ksx djosQ Mªkbax cksMZ ij ,d li + sQn dkx”k yxkb,A ¡ blosQ chpksachp ,d NM+ pqacd jf[k,A...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course SCIENCE 3SE taught by Professor Johnmanual during the Fall '09 term at Central European University.

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CHAP 13_H - fo|qr /kjk osQ pqacdh; izHkko 13 vè;k;...

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