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Unformatted text preview: C HEMICAL REACTION TYPES HANDOUT REACTION DESCRIPTION In these reactions, a free element reacts with a compound to form another compound and release one of the elements of the original compound in the elemental state. There are two different possibilities: 1. One metal replaces replaces another. 2. One nonmetal replaces another. REACTION FORMAT 1. A + BC Æ B + AC (when A is a metal) 2. A + BC Æ C + BA (when A is a nonmetal) REACTION GUIDELINES 1. Not every metal can react and replace or displace a metal out of solution. Whether one metal will replace another metal from a compound can be determined by comparing the relative reactivities of the two metals. Below is an activity series of metals arranged in order of decreasing reactivity. A metal will replace any metal listed below it in the activity series, but not vice versa . ACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS METAL SYMBOL Lithium Rubidium Potassium Barium Strontium Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Chromium Iron Cadmium Cobalt Nickel Tin Lead Hydrogen Antimony Bismuth Copper Mercury Silver Platinum Gold Li Rb K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb H* Sb Bi Cu Hg Ag Pt Au *Metals from Li to Na will replace H from acids and water; from Mg to Pb they will replace H from acids only. 2. A nonmetal can also replace another nonmetal from a compound. This replacement is usually limited to the halogens (F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , & I 2 ). The activity of the halogens decreases as you go down the column on the periodic table. SINGLE REPLACEMENT REACTION REACTION GUIDELINES EXAMPLES 1. Mg + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 Æ Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + Zn Mg replaces Zn; Mg is above Zn on the chart Mg + 2 AgNO 3 Æ Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + 2 Ag Mg replaces Ag; Mg is above Ag on the chart Mg + LiNO 3 Æ No Reaction (NR) Mg cannot replace Li; Li is above Mg on the chart 2. Cl 2 + 2 NaBr Æ 2 NaCl + Br 2 REACTION DESCRIPTION During double replacement, the cations and anions of two different compounds switch places, if and only if an insoluble product is formed. REACTION FORMAT AB + CD Æ AD + CB REACTION GUIDELINES 1. It is important that the formulas of the products be written correctly. If they are correct, balancing the equation is a simple task; if not, the equation will probably never balance. 2. In these reactions, there is never a change in ionic charge (if a reactant is a Lead II compound it will stay a Lead II compound as a product) 3. You also must determine if a reaction actually takes place?...
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- Spring '11