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Unformatted text preview: Alexander the Great 356 323 B.C. 1. Macedonia, Greece 2. Father Philip II, King of Macedonia Alexander died at the age of 32 or 33 3. Macedonia was very wealthy during the time of King Philip and Alexander. 4. In 357 B.C. Philip at the age of 26 married Olympias of Epirus, not a Macedonian, and in 356 B.C. she gave birth to Alexander. 5. Philip saw her in bed with a snake and wondered as to who was the father of this child, Philip or Zeus. Many times Zeus presented himself in Greek mythology as a snake. 6. Philip sent a messenger to Delphi, the city of Apollo, to inquire as to who was the father of Alexander. The oracle said of him to honor Zeus. Thus no clear answer was given. 7. Pella, the town where Alexander was born and raised. 8. Aigai, the historic capital of Macedonia. 9. Homer, Alexander's favorite author. 10. Bucephalus, Alexander's horse. 11. Aristotle, Alexander's teacher. 12. Hephaestion, Alexander's closest friend. 13. Pike, a Greek lance 1518 feet long. 14. Alexander, at the age of 18, showed his military abilities in 338 B.C. in the Battle of Chaeronea which was between the armies of Macedonia and Athens/Thebes. Alexander was in charge of the cavalry which destroyed the Thebans. 15. In 338 B.C. Philip married 20 year old Cleopatra, a Macedonian. A son by Cleopatra would replace Alexander as the next King of Macedonia. Later Cleopatra gave birth to a son. 16. At the wedding feast in 338 B.C. Philip tried to kill Alexander but failed. Alexander and Olympias then went into exile. Alexander returned to Macedonia but a rift continued to exist between Alexander and Philip. 17. Philip's vision at this time was to go to war against Darius, King of Persia. 18. In 336 B.C. Philip had a festival in Aigai in honor of the gods. At this festival Philip was assassinated by one of his body guards Pausanias. 19. Upon the death of Philip, Alexander, who was 20 years of age, became the King of Macedonia 20. Olympias had the son of Cleopatra killed and Cleopatra killed herself. 21. Within 6 months Alexander retook all of Greece and totally destroyed Thebes except for their temples and the House of Pindar. 22. In November 335 B.C. went to Delphi where the Oracle acclaimed him "invincible." 23. In the spring of 334 Alexander crossed into Asia with 40,000 soldiers. 24. The Battle at Granicus River was Alexander's first of three battles against King Darius. Alexander defeated Darius's military of 20,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry. 25. Gordium, knot 26. In November 333 B.C. Battle of Issus was the second battle between Alexander and Darius. Darius fled leaving his mother, wife and two unmarried daughters behind. 27. In January 332 B.C. and on into July 332 B.C. Battle of Tyre where Alexander's men built a causeway over to the island and defeated the Tyrians. 28. In November 332 Alexander entered Egypt where he was received as their deliverer. While in Egypt he founded the city of Alexandria. It was during this Egyptian visit that Alexander was declared "The son of Zeus Amon." 29. In July 331 Battle of Gaugamela was the third and last battle between Alexander and King Darius. Darius escaped and was killed by his own men. Thus Alexander became the ruler of all Persia. 30. Persepolis, the capital city of Persia. 31. Alexander continued to pursue Darius' generals and conquered numerous cities throughout Persia and also India. 32. In 328 Alexander took a wife, Roxana. 33. In the autumn of 324 Hephaestion died and Alexander gave him a royal funeral. 34. In 323 B.C. Alexander became ill after a banquet and ten days later on June 13, 323 he died in his 33rd year. His body was taken to Alexandria, Egypt where it was entombed. ...
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- Winter '08