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NLAoutline - 1 2 Language Development Through Preschool...

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10/25/2011 1 Language Development Through Preschool Acquisition of Grammatical Morphemes Grammatical Morphemes are inflectional and derivational morphemes, regular and irregular verb tense, etc. Brown established the emergence of 14 grammatical morphemes for the purpose of analyzing in a language sample. Analysis of Brown’s 14 Grammatical Morphemes Constitute syntactic analysis. Present progressive – ing (19 – 28 mos) The dog is running. In (preposition) (27 – 30 mos) The bear is in the box. On (preopsition) (27 – 30 mos) The bear is on the box. Regular Plural (27 – 33 mos) The dogs are barking. Irregular past tense (25 – 46 mos) Andrew ran to the store. Possessive - ’s (26 – 40 mos) Those are mommy’s keys. Quick Definitions Auxiliary—a form of be, have, or do (or a modal, such as will, shall, should, could, can ) used with a verb. is seeing , did see , will be seeing , have seen , should see , had been seen Copula is a form of the be verb that is used as a main verb. The boy is tall. Apples are red . In many language they are often irregular. In the examples above are is the irregular plural form of is . Uncontractible copula (27 – 39 mos) He is. (in response to Whose sick?) Articles ( the, a ) (28 – 46 mos) I see a kitty. Throw the ball. Regular past tense – ed (26 – 48 mos) Mommy pull ed the wagon. Regular third person singular -s (26 – 48 mos) Kathy hit s . Irregular third person singular (28 – 50 mos) Do it the way she does . I like the one he has . Uncontractible auxiliary (29 – 48 mos) He is . In response to “Who is wearing your hat?” Contractible copula (29 – 49 mos) The dog ’s big. Contractible auxiliary. (30 – 50 mos) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
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10/25/2011 2 Daddy ’s drinking juice. Grammatical morphemes tend to be mastered in above order. Mastery is considered to be correct if the child is using it correctly in 90% of the obligatory contexts. Obligatory context means that an utterance requires the use of a given grammatical morpheme, and the child uses the appropriate morpheme. Overgeneralization of Grammatical Morpheme Use As children begin to master some of these grammatical morphemes, they overextend or overgeneralize their use. Examples of overgeneralization: Singular Plural Dog dogs Hand hands Foot foots (adult form = irreg.: feet) Man mans (adult form = irreg.: men) Pronouns Children begin to use pronouns in Stage I or II, but may not master the use of some pronouns until Stage IV and beyond. To Understand Pronoun Use— Pronouns convey information about gender or lack of gender (e.g., he, she, her, him, it ) Pronouns convey information about the number of referents (e.g., I vs. we, he/she vs. they) Pronouns can be either subjective (e.g., I , she , he, they ) or objective (e.g., me , her , him , them ). Pronouns continued Different pronouns require different verb forms (e.g., she is , they are ) The child must master anaphoric reference. That is when a pronoun is included in a sentence the meaning will be obscured if the listener does not know the informational content of the preceding statement or statements.
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