Normal Language Acquisition Final Study Guide

Normal Language Acquisition Final Study Guide - Normal...

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Normal Language Acquisition Final Study Guide What is Language o 5 Components Phonology- rules for combining sounds into words Syntax- rules that govern the combination of words into meaningful units Morphology- smallest unit of meaning Semantics- meaning component of language Pragmatics- rules that govern the use of language o Bloom and Lahey's 3 Component Model Form Phonology Syntax Morphology Content Semantics Use Pragmatics Speech Language and Communication o Language- a system of abstract symbols and rule-governed structures, the specific conventions of which are learned o Speech- the expression of language o Communication- the sending and receiving of information, ideas, feelings, or messages Hockett o Hockett's 13 Design Features 1. Vocal-Auditory Channel- speech and reception by listener 2. Broadcast Transmission and Directional Reception- humans receive and perceive by the ears, timing, temporal ordering, loudness, direction 3. Rapid Fading- auditory signal is transitory 4. Interchangeability- what I say you can repeat 5. Total Feedback- we can hear what we say and monitor/adjust it 6. Specialization- speech is specifically designed for communication and nothing else 7. Semanticity- we are able to describe something in great detail 8. Arbitrariness- agreed upon words for objects, actions, feelings, etc. 9. Discreteness- vocal range that allows us to produce a limited number of sounds 10. Displacement- ability to talk about things not here and now 11. Productivity- can say sentences that have never been said before and combine words in unique ways 12. Duality of Patterning- language restricted by the number of sounds we can produce, but these sounds can be combined in different ways 13. Traditional Transmission- innate biological mechanism designed for the purpose of speech o What Hockett left out
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Recursion- humans ability to use acquired knowledge to make new knowledge, imagine what others may be thinking, engage in mental time travel, to think about and gain understanding of self, to relate to a divine being in the development and demonstration of spirituality Indexicality- use of context to establish meaning Prevarication- ability to intentionally deceive others Metalinguistic- ability to use language to talk about language o 4 critical To Speech Semanticity Displacement Productivity Traditional Transmission The Speech Chain o 1. The speaker sorts through his or her thoughts, decides which of these to express, and makes some decision about how to express them o 2. You as a speaker put your message into language form by going through your mental dictionary, called a lexicon, to pick out the right words to say and put them in the correct order o 3. The brain sends instructions in the form of neural impulses to the muscles of speech. These include the respiratory, larynx, and oral muscles o
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