MICRO 06 Lect 81

MICRO 06 Lect 81 - LECTURES IN MICROBIOLOGY Antimicrobial...

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Antimicrobial Agents Sofronio Agustin Professor LECTURES IN MICROBIOLOGY LESSON 8
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2 Lesson 8 Topics Antimicrobial Therapy Selective Toxicity Survey of Antimicrobial Agents Microbial Drug Resistance Drug-Host Interaction
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3 The Ideal Antimicrobial Drug
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4 Selective Toxicity An ideal in chemotherapy that an antimicrobial drug kills only pathogenic microbes without harming the host. Historically, reminiscent of the “magic bullet” of Paul Ehrlich.
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5 Terms in Chemotherapy Chemotherapy - use of drugs to treat diseases. Antimicrobials - any drug used in treating infectious diseases. Antibiotics - substances produced by some microbes that inhibit or kill other microbes. Synthetic drugs - antimicrobial compounds synthesized in the laboratory.
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6 Historical Note in Chemotherapy 1928 – Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin from Penicillium notatum . 1940 – Howard Florey and Ernst Chain performed first clinical trials of penicillin.
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7 Antibiotics Naturally occurring Metabolic products of bacteria and fungi Reduce competition for nutrients and space Examples: Bacteria- Streptomyces, Bacillus Molds - Penicillium, Cephalosporium
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8 Antimicrobial Activity Narrow-spectrum Broad-spectrum Bactericidal Bacteriostatic
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9 Antimicrobial Activity
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10 Modes of Action Primary target sites of antimicrobial drugs in bacterial cells.
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11 Cell Wall Active Agents Bactericidal Penicillin and Cephalosporins – binds and blocks peptidases involved in cross-linking the glycan molecules. Vancomycin – prevents peptidoglycan elongation Cycloserine – inhibits the formation of the basic peptidoglycan subunits
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12 Cell Wall Active Agents Antibiotics weaken the cell wall and cause the cell to lyse.
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13 Cell Wall Active Agents Penicillins and cephalosporins destroy the peptidoglycan layer by disrupting the peptide cross bridges.
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14 Cell Wall Active Agents Penicillin Natural penicillins Semi-synthetic penicillins Molecular Structure Thiazolidine ring Beta-lactam ring Variable side chain (R group)
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15 Penicillins
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16 Penicillinase
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17 Penicillins Penicillinase-resistant penicillins Extended-spectrum penicillins Penicillins + β -lactamase inhibitors Carbapenems Monobactam
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Penicillins Bactericidal Narrow spectrum. Used to treat:
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MICRO 06 Lect 81 - LECTURES IN MICROBIOLOGY Antimicrobial...

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