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Microbial Genetics

Microbial Genetics - MICROBIOLOGY LECTURES Microbial...

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01/18/12 1 Microbial Genetics MICROBIOLOGY LECTURES Sofronio Agustin Professor
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01/18/12 2 Lesson Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to: Describe the structure of genomes and their replication. Understand gene function and transfer of genetic information through transcriptional and translational events. Understand genetic mutations and the phenomenon of genetic recombination and transfer.
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01/18/12 3 Basic Terminology Genetics is the study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated. Genes specific sequences of nucleotides in the DNA molecule that encode for a functional product, usually a protein. Genome of an organism is its entire genetic makeup, including both its genes and noncoding sequences that link these.
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01/18/12 4 Bacterial Chromosome Naked, circular piece of DNA containing approximately 3000- 4000 genes. Not associated with proteins, as is the linear chromosomes of eukaryotes. Plasmid is an extrachromosomal ring of DNA that contain genes associated with resistance to antibiotics.
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01/18/12 5 E. Coli Nucleoid E. coli showing single chromosome packed into loops (after cell was broken) Exceptions: Vibrio cholerae , etiologic agent of cholera, has two chromosomes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has linear chromosome.
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01/18/12 6 Flow of Genetic Information
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01/18/12 7 DNA Molecule Polynucleotides in a double helix. Lengths of DNA molecule expressed in base pairs (bp) E. coli = 4.6 X 10 6 bp. Human genome = 3 billion bp.
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01/18/12 8 Microbial Genomes Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Number of Chromosomes One or rarely two One Two or more Type of Nucleic Acid Circular or linear dsDNA Circular dsDNA Linear DNA in nucleus; circular in mitochondria and chloroplasts Location of DNA Nucleoid and plasmids Nucleoid and plasmids Nuclei and in mitochondria, chloroplasts in cytosol Histones Present No Yes Yes
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