30-31 BattElectrolLandscape

30-31 BattElectrolLandscape - Batteries Self contained...

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CHEM112 LRSVDS Batteries and Corrosion 1 Batteries Self contained electrochemical cell Primary batteries (not rechargeable) Secondary batteries (rechargeable) Research Needed to Improve Batteries: CHEM112 LRSVDS Batteries and Corrosion 2 Dry Cell (Flashlight Battery) Anode: Zn(s) Zn(s) ! Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e - Cathode: NH 4 Cl + MnO 2 + graphite paste 2NH 4 + (aq) + 2MnO 2 (s) + 2e - ! Mn 2 O 3 (s) + 2NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O
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CHEM112 LRSVDS Batteries and Corrosion 3 Battery Connection in Series Total emf is the sum of the individual emf’s CHEM112 LRSVDS Batteries and Corrosion 4 Dry Cell Battery: Alkaline Version ALKALINE CELL BATTERY: NH 4 Cl is replaced by KOH. Provides up to 50% more energy. Zn is used as a powder mixed with the electrolyte. Anode: Zn(s) + 2OH - ! Zn(OH) 2 (aq) + 2e - Cathode: 2H 2 O(s) + 2MnO 2 (s) + 2e - ! 2MnO(OH)(s) + 2OH - (aq)
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CHEM112 LRSVDS Batteries and Corrosion 5 DURING DISCHARGE: Anode: Pb(s) + SO 4 2- (aq) ! PbSO 4 (s) + 2e - Cathode: PbO 2 (s) + SO 4 2- (aq) + 4H + + 2e - ! PbSO 4 (s) + 2H 2 O Overall: Pb(s) + PbO 2 (s) + 2H 2 SO 4 ! 2PbSO 4 (s) + 2H 2 O Lead/Acid Batteries CHEM112 LRSVDS Batteries and Corrosion 6 12 V Automotive Lead-Acid Battery
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CHEM112 LRSVDS Batteries and Corrosion 7 Anode: Cd metal Cd(s) + 2OH - (aq) ! Cd(OH) 2 (s) + 2e - Cathode : NiO 2 (s) NiO 2 (s) + 2H 2 O + 2e - ! Ni(OH) 2 (s) + 2OH - (aq) Overall: E° = Cd(s) + NiO 2 (s) + 2H 2 O ! Cd(OH) 2 (s) + Ni(OH) 2 (s) PROBLEMS: Rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium Batteries CHEM112 LRSVDS Batteries and Corrosion 8 Batteries: Rechargeable During Discharge: Cathode : NiO(OH)(s) NiO(OH)(s) + 2H 2 O + 2e ! ! Ni(OH)
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30-31 BattElectrolLandscape - Batteries Self contained...

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