38 BondinginSolidsLandscape - Importance of INTERmolecular...

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1 CHEM 112 Bonding in Materials Importance of INTER molecular Forces 2 CHEM 112 Bonding in Materials FYI: Phase Diagrams Plot of pressure vs. temperature of the system showing the boundaries between the phases. normal melting point pressure dependence of melting point normal boiling point pressure dependence of boiling point critical point triple point supercritical fluid coexistence curves Predict what happens when the pressure and/or temperature of the system is changed
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3 CHEM 112 Bonding in Materials Structure of Solids Amorphous : no regular organization at a molecular level. Examples:___________________ Crystalline : regular 3-D array of atoms or molecules. Examples:_______________________ 4 CHEM 112 Bonding in Materials Structure of Crystalline Solids: Unit Cells Crystal lattice: 3-D array of atoms Unit cell: repeating unit of crystal lattice
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5 CHEM 112 Bonding in Materials Classes of Solids Atomic Solids (noble gases) Molecular Solids (VDW forces; discrete molecules, includes polymers) Covalent Network Solids (lattice of covalent bonds) Ionic Solids (salts; ionic bonds) Metals (metallic bonds; also alloys) 6 CHEM 112 Bonding in Materials Bonding in Molecular Solids Examples of Molecular/Atomic solids: Ar (atomic solid) CO 2 (dry ice) hydrocarbons (gasoline) alcohols sugar water (ice) methane
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7 CHEM 112 Bonding in Materials Bonding in Network Covalent Solids Examples of Network Covalent Solids: •SiC •BN •Metalloids •B SiO 2 (quartz) C (diamond) C (graphite) 2-D silicate sheet, Si 2 O 5 2- 8 CHEM 112 Bonding in Materials Allotropes of Carbon Structure Uses 1. Diamond 4 ! bonds to each C hardest substance known (Gem) sp 3 hybridization abrasive, drill bits, cutting tools tetrahedral, dense COVALENT NETWORK 2. Graphite (crystalline) 3 ! bonds to each C conducts current, soft: lubricant planar sp 2 hybridization batteries (as electrode), pencils delocalized " -bonds COVALENT NETWORK van der waals forces between planes Carbon Black (amorphous) tires, ink pigments, carbon paper Charcoal (amorphous) adsorb molecules in filters Coke (amorphous) reducing agent in metallurgical operation
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course CHEM 112 taught by Professor Vandersluys,lorschmid,kylem during the Fall '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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38 BondinginSolidsLandscape - Importance of INTERmolecular...

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