39 ShortElementsLandscape

39 ShortElementsLandscape - Descriptive Chemistry Cosmic...

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1 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements Descriptive Chemistry Cosmic abundance of the Elements Element Atomic No. Rel. Abundance H 1 3.5 x 10 8 He 2 3.5 x 10 7 C 6 80,000 N 7 160,000 O 8 210,000 F 9 90 Ne 10 10,000 Na 11 462 Mg 12 8,870 Al 13 882 Si 14 10,000 Cr 24 95 Mn 25 77 Fe 26 18,300 2 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements Occurrence of the Elements on Earth
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3 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements Abundance of elements Terrestrial abundance; On Earth! Element Atomic No. PPM Rank H 1 8,700 9 He 2 0.003 C 6 800 N 7 300 O 8 495,000 1 F 9 270 Na 11 26,000 6 Mg 12 19,000 8 Al 13 75,000 3 Si 14 257,000 2 K 19 24,000 7 Ca 20 34,000 5 Ti 22 5,800 10 Fe 26 47,000 4 4 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements Abundance of elements Terrestrial abundance 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 H B C N F Na Mg Al P O S Cl K Ca Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Cu Zn Si Se Rb Mo Sn I % by weight Si 27.72% O 46.6%
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5 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements Isolation of the Elements From their Natural state Sources of Gas-Phase Nonmetals: 1) HEAVY Noble Gases, O 2 , N 2 2) Helium 3) Halogens a) b) 4) Hydrogen a) Steam Reforming CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(g) ! CO(g) + 3 H 2 (g) CO(g) + H 2 O(g) ! CO 2 (g) + H 2 (g) b) c) 6 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements Isolation of the Elements From their Natural state Sources of Other Nonmetals: 1) Carbon 2) Sulfur 3) P 4) Se, Te 5) Boron 6) Metalloids
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7 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements Periodic Trends Summary Zeff n 1) Atomic Size 2) ionization energy 3) electron affinity both + and - ; halogens most negative 4) metallic character - metals lose electrons - nonmetals gain electrons increasing metallic character 8 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements N Max. of 4 bonds, 1 lone pair; usually has a valence of 3 HNO 3 (4 bonds to N) NH 3 , NCl 3 , CH 3 NH 2 , HNO 2 O Max. of 4 bonds, 2 lone pairs; usually has a valence of 2 H 2 O, OF 2 , H 2 C=O C Max. of 4 bonds, 0 lone pairs; always has a valence of 4 can gain 4 or lose 4 electrons to make an octet So carbon always makes 4 bonds CH 4 (4 single bonds) O=C=O (2 double bonds) H-C ! C-H (1 single + 1 triple bond) H 2 N C=O (2 single + 1 double bond) H 2 N (urea) Valence in Period II
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9 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements Bonding in Period II vs. III Valence: Heavy Group V elements can gain 3 electrons or lose 5 to make an octet; " expect either 5 covalent bonds (PF 5 ) or 3 covalent bonds (PF 3 ) Multiple Bonds: elements past the second row are too big to allow good sidewise overlap of p-orbitals 10 LRSVDS Chem 112 Main Group Elements
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39 ShortElementsLandscape - Descriptive Chemistry Cosmic...

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