42-43 MaterialsLandscape - Modern Materials and PSU...

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1 CHEM 112 LRSVDS Materials Modern Materials and PSU Research First school to offer a materials curriculum in 1960 . Developed the first interdisciplinary materials laboratory in 1962 . Penn State is ranked #1 in the US in expenditures for materials research, $50,000,000 Penn State’s Materials Research Institute (MRI) is one of the Materials Science and Engineering Centers funded by NSF (MRSEC, www.mrsec.org); interdisciplinary research groups working on: Biomolecular / Biomimetic Materials Condensed Matter Phenomena Energy / Sustainability Mechanics of Materials Multiferroics / Magnetics / Spintronics Nanostructures / Nanoparticles Polymers Semiconductors / Photonics / Organic Electronics Soft Materials / Colloids 200+ faculty members, 100 Researchers, and 800 Graduate Students are associated with MRI. 15 Academic departments, 5 colleges 21 research centers housed at Penn State are currently working on materials research including: Center for Nanoscale Science Particulate Materials Center Carbon Research Center Center for Dielectric Studies 2 CHEM 112 LRSVDS Materials Materials You Know Material: Zeolites for water softening. Different amounts of zeolites in detergents depending on geographic location . Sodium Zeolite A Material: Kevlar for bullet proof vests. Polymer structure produces strong intermolecular forces for a strong material. Kevlar Ceramics (inorganic, nonmetallic solids) Polymers
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3 CHEM 112 LRSVDS Materials Polymers The chemistry of compounds containing C bonded to H. ! Also may contain O, N, S, and halogens Reasons for large numbers of organic compounds: 1. Carbon atoms can form strong, stable bonds to other C atoms (small size) 2. Carbon atoms form up to 4 bonds simultaneously: (valence of 4) 3. Carbon atoms can form multiple bonds (Small size and valence of 4) 4. The C-H bond is nonpolar, but bonds to other elements are polar (N, O, halogens). (electronegativity) Review Organic Chemistry 4 CHEM 112 LRSVDS Materials Classes of Organic Compounds Classification is necessary to manage the large number of compounds Classes of HYDROCARBONS: Contain only C and H (Simplest organic compounds) 1) alkanes all single bonds 2) alkenes one or more double bonds 3) alkynes one or more triple bonds 4) aromatic alternating single and double bonds in a ring C C C C H H H H H H benzene
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5 CHEM 112 LRSVDS Materials Addition Reactions C-C Double and triple bonds are reactive: addition reactions typically occur at room temperature. For Alkenes CH 3 # CH=CH 2 + Br 2 $ CH 3 # CH=CH # CH 3 + H X $ where X = Cl, Br, I, OH, etc. For Alkynes CH 3 # C % CH + 2 Br 2 $ CH 3 -C % C -CH 3 + 2 H Cl $ C C C C H H H H H H H H X H C C C H H H H H H Br Br C C C H H H H Br Br Br Br C C C H H H H H H Cl Cl 6 CHEM 112 LRSVDS Materials Functional Group Classes Contain a representative group of elements in a fixed pattern: Each class has similarities in structure and function (reactivity) R, R’, R” = alkyl group Alcohols R- OH R " H Ethers R-O-R’ R and R’ " H Amines Functional Groups which contain a carbonyl group Aldehydes Ketone (R and R’ "
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course CHEM 112 taught by Professor Vandersluys,lorschmid,kylem during the Fall '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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42-43 MaterialsLandscape - Modern Materials and PSU...

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