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1_KINETICS_1L - Kinetics Rates of reaction average rates...

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Kinetics • Rates of reaction average rates instantaneous rates • Dependence of rate on concentration rate constant rate laws order of the reaction • Dependence of rate on time First order Second order Half-life • Dependence of rate on temperature Activation Energy E a Activated Complex Arrhenius Equation • Reaction Mechanisms • Catalysis and Enzymes MJ Bojan Chem 112 1
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CHEMICAL KINETICS Kinetics is the study of reaction rates. Thermodynamics tells us if a reaction can occur and how much energy is required (or given off) but not how fast. (More later) Spontaneous reactions : CH 4 +2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O Δ H rxn = 802.3kJ H 2 + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Δ H rxn = 241.8kJ Why is kinetics important? MJ Bojan Chem 112 2
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Rate : change that occurs in a given interval of time. We can measure the average rate or the instantaneous rate of a chemical reaction . MJ Bojan Chem 112 3
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Chemical Rate Laws describe instantaneous rates in terms of a change in concentration vs. time. Average rate Instantaneous rate MJ Bojan Chem 112 4
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REACTION RATES Stoichiometry of reaction tells us how these are related. General case: aA + bB cC + dD reactants products (a, b, c, d are stoichiometric coefficients) rate = " 1 a # A [ ] # t = " 1 b # B [ ] # t = + 1 c # C [ ] # t = + 1 d # D [ ] # t We can express the rate of reaction in terms of: 1. appearance of products 2. disappearance of reactants MJ Bojan Chem 112 5
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