3_Nuclear - Nuclear Chemistry Structure of atom Isotopes...

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Unformatted text preview: Nuclear Chemistry Structure of atom Isotopes Radioactive Decay Products of Nuclear Decay Nuclear Stability Rate of nuclear decay Nuclear dating Nuclear Binding energy Fission/Fusion Radiation Exposure Nuclear Medicine MJ Bojan Chem 112 1 Review Structure of atom Example: Atomic Number: identity of atom Mass Number MJ Bojan Chem 112 2 6 12 C Nucleons: particles in the nucleus Isotope: elements that have the same number of protons but different mass (= different # of neutrons) Hydrogen Isotopes 1 H protium most abundant isotope, nucleus consists of a single proton 2 H deuterium one neutron and one proton often given the symbol D. forms the hydrogen component of heavy water (D 2 O). 3 H tritium one proton and 2 neutrons radioactive isotope: half-life of 12.3 y not found in nature . MJ Bojan Chem 112 3 Isotope effects Properties that depend on mass will be different for different isotopes of the same element: Examples: bp, mp, reaction rates, rate of diffusion MJ Bojan Chem 112 4 Isotopes effects Deuterium and hydrogen exhibit isotopic differences in their properties. Eg. boiling points of heavy water and conventional water are slightly different allowing them to be separated by fractional distillation . Isotope effects Properties that depend on mass will be different for different isotopes of the same element: Examples: bp, mp, reaction rates, rate of diffusion MJ Bojan Chem 112 4 Isotopes effects Deuterium and hydrogen exhibit isotopic differences in their properties. Eg. boiling points of heavy water and conventional water are slightly different allowing them to be separated by fractional distillation . Isotopes can be used to label compounds. Nuclear Chemistry Ionizing Radiation: Energy needed to ionize Longer wavelength _________ energy Short wavelength _________ energy http://son.nasa.gov/tass/content/electrospectrum.htm The nuclei of some unstable isotopes undergo change by releasing energy and particles collectively known as radiation MJ Bojan Chem 112 5 Radioactive Decay 5 kinds of Spontaneous nuclear reactions 1) Emission of - particles : 4 2 He e.g. 238 92 U A Z X + 4 2 He 2) Emission of -particles : 1 e = electrons . e.g. 131 53 I A Z X + 1 e - particle emission converts a neutron to a proton: 1 n 1 1 p + 1 e MJ Bojan Chem 112 6 4) Emission of positrons ( +-particles): +1 e e.g....
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3_Nuclear - Nuclear Chemistry Structure of atom Isotopes...

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