7_Periodicity

7_Periodicity - Periodic Trends Size Ioniza*on energy and...

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Periodic Trends Size Ioniza*on energy and Electron affinity electronega*vity Metallic Character Trends in Acid/base proper*es Trends in oxida*on states 1 Periodicity
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Sizes of Atoms 2 Periodicity Atomic radii increase with increasing electron shielding . Atomic radii decrease with increasing effective nuclear charge .
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Sizes of Ions Ionic size Ca*ons are ____________ their parent atoms. Anions are _____________ their parent atoms. 3
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Sizes of atoms and ions Even though cations have smaller radii and anions have larger radii than neutral atoms, the periodic trends in size are still valid for both atoms and ions. 4
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Ionization energy (IE): is the energy necessary to remove an electron from an atom, molecule or ion. Na( g ) Na + ( g) + e Ionization energy is always: IONIZATION ENERGY What are the trends? Moving down a group, _______________ (increased electron shielding ) Moving across a row ________________ from left to right, (increased effective nuclear charge ) 5
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Ionization energy 6 It is easier to remove an electron if it is un-paired than if it is paired. It is easier to remove an electron from a 2p orbital than it is to remove one from a filled 2s orbital.
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Electron affinity : is the energy change when a gaseous atom gains an electron to form a gaseous ion: Cl( g ) + e Cl ( g ) Electron affinity can either be exothermic (as the above example) or endothermic: Na( g ) + e Na ( g ) ELECTRON AFFINITY 7
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alkaline earths: EA is close to 0, WHY: Halogens have the highest EA of any elements: Other Trends: Electron Affinity 8
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TRENDS moving up a group on the periodic
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7_Periodicity - Periodic Trends Size Ioniza*on energy and...

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