Lecture_03_010912 - Lecture 3: Chemical Foundations Outline...

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Lecture 3: Chemical Foundations • Outline : - Mathematical Procedures (A1.1, A1.5, A1.6) - Units of Measurement and Conversions Among Units (App. 2) - Fundamental Chemical Laws (2.2) - Dalton’s Atomic Theory (2.3) - Cannizzaro’s Interpretation (2.4) - Early Experiments to Characterize the atom (2.5) - Modern View of Atomic Structure (2.6) • Problems for Extra Practice: 2.18, 2.19, 2.23, 2.31
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Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations • Multiplication or division – Number of significant figures in the result is the same as the number of significant figures in the least precise measurement used in the calculation 8.16 x 5.1355 = 1.05 x 10 -3 6.135 = ÷
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Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations • Addition or subtraction – Number of significant figures in the result has the same number of decimal places as the least precise measurement used in the calculation 16.01 + 3.896 + 17.3 = 11547.3 – 35.445489 =
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Significant Figures – Combined Operations
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Precision and Accuracy Both precise and accurate (small random errors, no systematic errors) Precise but not accurate (small random errors, large systematic errors) Neither precise nor accurate (large systematic errors)
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Conversion Factors Conversion factor is a ratio in which the numerator and the denominator are quantities from an equality or a given relationship Equality Conversion Factors 1 km = 1000 m 1 km 1000 m 1000 m 1 km and 1 gallon = 4 qt 1 gallon 4 qt 4 qt 1 gallon and 1 kg = 2.20 lb 1 kg 2.20 lb 2.20 lb 1 kg and
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Dimensional Analysis • Determine given and needed units • State the equality that relates the two units • Write conversion factor • Set up problem to cancel units and calculate answer
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Dimensional Analysis • How many mL are in a gallon of milk? – Step 1:
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Lecture_03_010912 - Lecture 3: Chemical Foundations Outline...

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