Lecture_03_010912

# Lecture_03_010912 - Lecture 3 Chemical Foundations...

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Lecture 3: Chemical Foundations • Outline : - Mathematical Procedures (A1.1, A1.5, A1.6) - Units of Measurement and Conversions Among Units (App. 2) - Fundamental Chemical Laws (2.2) - Dalton’s Atomic Theory (2.3) - Cannizzaro’s Interpretation (2.4) - Early Experiments to Characterize the atom (2.5) - Modern View of Atomic Structure (2.6) • Problems for Extra Practice: 2.18, 2.19, 2.23, 2.31

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Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations • Multiplication or division – Number of significant figures in the result is the same as the number of significant figures in the least precise measurement used in the calculation 8.16 x 5.1355 = 1.05 x 10 -3 6.135 = ÷
Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations • Addition or subtraction – Number of significant figures in the result has the same number of decimal places as the least precise measurement used in the calculation 16.01 + 3.896 + 17.3 = 11547.3 – 35.445489 =

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Significant Figures – Combined Operations
Precision and Accuracy Both precise and accurate (small random errors, no systematic errors) Precise but not accurate (small random errors, large systematic errors) Neither precise nor accurate (large systematic errors)

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Conversion Factors Conversion factor is a ratio in which the numerator and the denominator are quantities from an equality or a given relationship Equality Conversion Factors 1 km = 1000 m 1 km 1000 m 1000 m 1 km and 1 gallon = 4 qt 1 gallon 4 qt 4 qt 1 gallon and 1 kg = 2.20 lb 1 kg 2.20 lb 2.20 lb 1 kg and
Dimensional Analysis • Determine given and needed units • State the equality that relates the two units • Write conversion factor • Set up problem to cancel units and calculate answer

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Dimensional Analysis • How many mL are in a gallon of milk? – Step 1:
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## This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course CHEM 142B taught by Professor John during the Winter '11 term at University of Washington.

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Lecture_03_010912 - Lecture 3 Chemical Foundations...

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