handout_L05_2nd3rdLaw - Lecure 5 The Second and Third Laws...

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Lecure 5: The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics • Reading: Zumdahl 10.5, 10.6 • Outline – Definition of the Second Law – Determining S – Definition of the Third Law The Second Law The Second Law: In any spontaneous process , there is always an increase in the entropy of the universe . From our definitions of system and surroundings: S universe = S system + S surroundings The Second Law (cont.) Three possibilities: – If S univ > 0…..process is spontaneous – If S univ < 0…..process is spontaneous in opposite direction. – If S univ = 0….equilibrium Here’s the catch: We need to know S for both the system and surroundings to predict if a reaction will be spontaneous! The Second Law (cont.) Consider a reaction driven by heat flow from the surroundings at constant P. – Exothermic Process: S surr = heat/T – Endothermic Process: S surr = -heat/T Heat transferred = q P,surr = - q P,system= - H sys S surr = − H sys T Example
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