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Review Midterm1 - $E = q w w = Pext $V(irrev H = E PV $H =...

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! " A ! a i ! i # S = kln ! k = R/N a = 1.38 x 10 -23 J/K $ S = k ln ( ! final ) - kln( ! initial ) = Nk ln( ! final / ! initial ) for N molec. =Nkln(V final /V initial ) w total " % PdV V 1 V 2 & " % nRT V dV V 1 V 2 & " % nRT (ln( V )) | V 1 V 2 " % nRT ln V 2 V 1 ) * + , - $ V = 0 $ P = 0 $ S " dq rev T initial final & " nR ln V final V initial ) * + , - $ S " dq rev T initial final & " nC v ln T final T initial ) * + , - $ S " dq rev T initial final & " nC p ln T final T initial ) * + , - dq rev " nRT dV V dq rev " nC v dT dq rev " nC P dT $ S " dq rev T initial final & " q rev T $ T = 0 $ E = q + w w = - P ext $ V (irrev.) H = E + PV $ H = $ E + $. PV) = $ E + P $ V (P is constant) = q p $ E = nC v $ T = q V $ H = nC p $ T = q P C v = 3/2R C p = C v + R = 5/2 R If $ T = 0, then $ E = 0 and q = -w State Function Hess Law (extensive property) Standard State $ rxn = /$ f (products) - /$ f (reactants)
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The Second Law $ S universe = $ S system + $ s surroundings The Third Law Entropy and Phase Changes: $ S univ = 0 $ sys = $0 sys /T $ S surr " % $ H sys T $ S reaction o " S prod . o 1 % S react . o 1 $ G = $ H - T
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