Lecture6 - Lecture 6: Entropy Reading: Zumdahl 10.1, 10.3...

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Lecture 6: Entropy Reading: Zumdahl 10.1, 10.3 • Outline: Why enthalpy isn’t enough to explain spontaneity Statistical interpretation of entropy Boltzmann’s Formula
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Enthalpy and Spontaneous Rxns • Early in the development of thermodynamics, it was believed that if a reaction was exothermic , it was spontaneous. But this can’t be the whole story--- consider an ice cube on a warm day. Consider the following reaction: H 2 O(s) H 2 O(l) ΔH° rxn = +6.02 kJ This process is endothermic (ice feels cold), yet spontaneous (it melts all by itself) !
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Enthalpy and Spontaneous Rxns • Consider the following problem: Mixing of a gas inside a bulb adiabatically ( q = 0 ). q = 0, w = 0, ΔE = ΔH =0 This process is NOT exothermic, but it still happens. Why??? Entropy
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Statistical Interpretation of Entropy • Imagine that we have a collection of 3 distinguishable particles who have a total energy of 3ε(ε is a unit of energy) • Let’s ask the question, “How will this fixed amount of energy distribute itself over the particles?”
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Our system consists of three distinguishable particles.
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Lecture6 - Lecture 6: Entropy Reading: Zumdahl 10.1, 10.3...

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