C142A Ch 4 2011 lecture notes

C142A Ch 4 2011 lecture notes - Chapter 4: Types of...

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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions (MOLARITY!) 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations
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Figure 4.1: A space-filling model of the water molecule.
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( ) The expression is used to indicate a solvated anion or ca aq tion (or molecule)
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Figure 4.2: Polar water molecules interact with the positive and negative ions of a salt, assisting with the dissolving process.
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The Role of Water as a Solvent: The solubility of Ionic Compounds Electrical conductivity - The flow of electrical current in a solution is a measure of the solubility of ionic compounds or a measurement of the presence of ions in solution. Electrolyte - A substance that conducts a current when dissolved in water. Soluble ionic compound dissociate completely and may conduct a large current, and are called Strong Electrolytes. NaCl (s) + H 2 O (l) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) When Sodium Chloride dissolves into water the ions become solvated , and are surrounded by water molecules. These ions are called “ aqueous and are free to move through out the solution, and are conducting electricity, or helping electrons to move through out the solution
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Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Solutions
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Figure 4.5: HCL (aq) is completely ionized.
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Figure 4.6: An aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide.
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Strong Electrolytes • Produce ions in aqueous solution and conduct electricity well. • Strong electrolytes are soluble salts, strong acids and strong bases . • Strong acids produce H + ions when they dissolve in water. • HCl, … , HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 are strong acids HNO 3 ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + NO 3 - ( aq ) • NaOH and KOH are strong bases: NaOH( s ) Na + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) All of the above species are ionized nearly 100% Weak bases like NH 3 and weak acids like acetic acid don’t conduct electricity well
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Figure 4.7: Acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) exists in water mostly as undissociated molecules.
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Figure 4.8: The reaction of NH 3 in water.
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Weak Electrolytes • Produce relatively few ions in aqueous solution • The most common weak electrolytes are weak acids and weak bases. • Acetic acid is a typical weak acid: HC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - ( aq ) • Ammonia is a common weak base: NH 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) Both of these species are ionized only ~1%
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Because of hydrogen bond formation, water boils at a much higher temperature than CH 4 (90 K), which has a comparable molecular mass.
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Nonelectrolytes Dissolve in water but produce no ions in solution.
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C142A Ch 4 2011 lecture notes - Chapter 4: Types of...

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