Ch 4_Part 1 with handwritten notes_101711

Ch 4_Part 1 with handwritten notes_101711 - Chapter 4 Types...

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10/17/2011 1 Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions (MOLARITY!) 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation (limited coverage) 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations (Exam 2) 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations 1 Definitions – Solutes, Solvents and Solutions Solute – Substance being dissolved, mixed, diluted. – Example: compounds extracted from coffee grounds, sugar, milk. Solvent – Substance doing the dissolving, mixing, dilution. – Example: water Solution – Final combination of dissolution, mixing, and dilution. – Example: morning coffee
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10/17/2011 2 Water as a Solvent water is an important solvent – dissolves many substances “aqueous” means a solution in which water is the solvent water is a POLAR molecule 3 Red: more electron density Blue: less electron density Polar and Nonpolar Solutes water dissolves some nonionic substances if they are polar (ethanol-water) ethanol molecules are polar (contain directional O-H bond) 4 nonpolar substances (e.g., octane (C 8 H 18 ), benzene (C 6 H 6 ), fats, oils) will not dissolve in water
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10/17/2011 3 Ionic Solutes polar water molecules dissolve ionic compounds (salts) “hydration” breaks ionic compounds into anions and cations water dissolves different ionic compounds to different degrees (more in Ch 8) 5 The Role of Water as a Solvent: Dissolution of Ionic Compounds Electrical conductivity: the flow of electrical current in a solution is an indicator of the presence of ions in solution and the solubility of ionic compounds. Ions become solvated/hydrated – are surrounded by water molecules. These ions are labeled “ aqueous ”, are free to move throughout the solution, and conduct electricity. NaCl
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Ch 4_Part 1 with handwritten notes_101711 - Chapter 4 Types...

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