Ch 7_Part 1_111711 - 11/17/2011 Chapter 7 Acids and Bases...

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11/17/2011 1 Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The pH Scale 7.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7 Polyprotic Acids 7.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts 7.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration 7.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration 7.11 Strategy for solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary Acids and Bases Acids were first recognized as substances that taste sour. sulfuric acid reacts with water in your skin…a very exothermic reaction Bases taste bitter, feel slippery. lye (sodium hydroxide) reacts with lipids and oils in skin to produce a “soap” molecule Saponification pH of foods: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/lacf-phs.html
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11/17/2011 2 A & B: Arrhenius Theory Acid = a substance containing H + and whose aqueous solution contains more H + ions than OH - ions. Dissolve “ HA ” in water. .. Base = a substance containing OH - and whose aqueous solution contains more OH - ions than H + ions. Dissolve “ BOH ” in water. .. Neutralization : produces water and an aqueous salt. Net ionic equation: 2 HO + HA( ) H ( ) + A ( ) aq aq aq  + BOH( ) B ( ) + OH ( ) aq aq aq H A( ) + B OH( ) AB( ) + H OH( ) aq aq aq aq H ( ) + OH ( ) H OH( ) aq aq aq   A & B: Bronsted-Lowry Theory Bronsted-Lowry : acid/base reactions are proton- transfer processes. acid is proton-donor (H + ion donor). base is proton- acceptor (H + ion acceptor). When an acid gives its proton to water, water is acting as a base. B + H—A B—H + A H 2 O + H—A H 2 O—H + A -
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11/17/2011 3 Arrhenius vs. Bronsted-Lowry Arrhenius : acid ... [H + ] > [OH - ] base ... [H + ] < [OH - ] Bronsted-Lowry : proton transfer: …from an acid ( proton- donor ), to a base ( proton acceptor )… to form a covalent bond. the base donates the electrons for the bond the proton accepts the electrons for the bond Bronsted-Lowry Arrhenius + HA + B A H B  A & B: Lewis Acids BF 3 NH 3 F 3 B-NH 3 Lewis Base: electron pair donator Lewis Acid: electron pair acceptor Lewis acid/base reactions are not limited to aqueous environments and can have other e-pair acceptors than just H + .
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11/17/2011 4 Lewis A & S: Lewis Acids (cont) Bronsted-Lowry Arrhenius The formation of a covalent bond is the driving force in all three acid/base schemes.
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course CHEM 142B taught by Professor John during the Fall '11 term at University of Washington.

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Ch 7_Part 1_111711 - 11/17/2011 Chapter 7 Acids and Bases...

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