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Lec08_drobny_11

# Lec08_drobny_11 - Lecture 8 The Second and Third Laws of...

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Lecture 8: The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics • Reading: Zumdahl 10.5, 10.6 Recommended Problems:10.31, 10.35, 10.37, 10.41, 10.45 • Outline – Definition of the Second Law – Determining Δ S – Definition of the Third Law

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The Second Law The Second Law: In any spontaneous process , there is always an increase in the entropy of the universe . From our definitions of system and surroundings: Δ S universe = Δ S system + Δ S surroundings
The Second Law (cont.) Three possibilities: – If Δ S univ > 0…..process is spontaneous – If Δ S univ < 0…..process is spontaneous in opposite direction. – If Δ S univ = 0….equilibrium Here’s the catch: We need to know Δ S for both the system and surroundings to predict if a reaction will be spontaneous!

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The Second Law (cont.) Consider a reaction driven by heat flow from the surroundings at constant P. – Exothermic Process: Δ S surr = heat/T – Endothermic Process: Δ S surr = -heat/T Heat transferred = q P,surr = - q P,system= - Δ H sys
Calculating Entropy Δ T = 0 Δ V = 0 Δ P = 0

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Calculating Entropy Example: What is Δ S for the heating of a mole of a monatomic gas isochorically from 298 K to 350 K?
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Lec08_drobny_11 - Lecture 8 The Second and Third Laws of...

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