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Lecture7_drobny - Lecture 7 Thermo and Entropy Reading...

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Lecture 7: Thermo and Entropy • Reading: Zumdahl 10.2, 10.3 Recommended Problems: 10.10.21, 10.23, 10.25, 10.27 • Outline – Isothermal processes – Isothermal gas expansion and work – Reversible processes
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What the Second Law Does Defines a new State Function Called “Entropy” S. Predicts the ‘spontaneous’ direction for physical and chemical process based on how the entropy of the universe changes. Designates the upper limit for the efficiency of heat machines…how much work can be extracted from heat transfer.
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How to Understand Entropy by Building a Heat Engine
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Isothermal Processes • Recall: Isothermal means Δ T = 0. • Since Δ E = nC V Δ T, then Δ E = 0 for an isothermal process. • Since Δ E = q + w: q = -w (isothermal process)
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Example: Isothermal Expansion Consider a mass connected to a ideal gas contained in a “piston”. Piston is submerged in a constant T bath such that Δ T = 0.
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Isothermal Expansion (cont.) Initially, V = V 1 P = P 1 Pressure of gas is equal to that created by mass: P 1 = force/area = M 1 g/A where A = piston area g = gravitational acceleration (9.8 m/s 2 )
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Isothermal Expansion (cont.)
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