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ch12 - Chapter 12 Community Corrections Chapter Objectives...

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Chapter 12 Community Corrections Chapter Objectives: 1. Define community corrections and identify the goals and responsibilities of community corrections agencies and their staff 2. Define probation and summarize the research findings on recidivism rates. 3. Distinguish parole from probation 4. Explain the functions of a parole board. 5. Describe how intermediate sanctions differ from traditional community corrections programs. 6. Explain two major concerns about intensive-supervision probation and parole ISP). 7. Explain what day reporting centers and structured fines are. 8. Explain what home confinement and electronic monitoring are. 9. Identify the goal of halfway houses and compare them with other community corrections programs. 10. Summarize the purpose and outcomes of temporary-release programs Overview This chapter is about community corrections. Community corrections can be broadly defined as the subfield of corrections consisting of programs in which offenders are supervised and provided services outside of jail or prison. The important of community corrections is realized when one examines the number of people under supervision in the criminal justice system. There are simply too many people to put them all in prison. Other methods of dealing with the offender must be found or the entire system will come grinding to a halt. Probation is a sentence in which the offender, rather than being incarcerated is retained in the community under the supervision of a probation agency and required to abide by certain rules and conditions to avoid incarceration. The origins of modern probation lie in the efforts of John Augustus (1785-1859), a Boston shoemaker, who is considered the “father” of probation. Starting in the IM-12 | 1
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early 1840s, Augustus volunteered to stand bail and assume custody for select, less serious offenders in exchange for the judge’s deferring the sentence. Augustus was responsible for monitoring offenders’ activities and later reporting to the judge on their performance in the community. Parole is a method of prison release whereby inmates are released at the discretion of a board or other authority before having completed their entire sentences. Parole can also refer to the community supervision received upon release. The historical beginnings of parole may be traced to Alexander Machonochie and his ticket of leave. He believed that each inmate should hold the key to his own release. If an inmate performed well while in prison he could earn “marks” which allowed him to be released before his imposed sentence ended. The chapter ends with a discussion of various intermediate sanctions. The author includes intensive-supervised probation and parole, day reporting centers, day fines, home confinement, electronic monitoring, and halfway houses.
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