parole and probation - Introduction The origin of parole...

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Introduction: The origin of parole can be associated with the work of a number of individuals who headed prisons; they include Brockway Zebulon in the year 1867, Alexander Maconochie in the year 1840 and Walter Crofton in the year 1854, Brockway Zebulon run the Elmira penitentiary in the New York while Alexander Maconochie was the governor of the Norfolk Island prison, Walter Crofton was the governor of the Irish prison. All the above contributed to the introduction of parole system in the prison system. Paroles in the united states were introduced by Brockway Zebulon in the year 1876 as a way to reduce jail overcrowding and at the same time as a way to rehabilitate prisoners by encouraging them to win their way out of prison through good behavior, involves the supervision of a criminal after serving part of jail term and the convict is allowed to live in the community under supervision, the parole period is dependent on the decisions made by the board of parole, violation of parole will result into re imprisonment of the convict. Brockway Zebulon was born in 1827 and died in the year 1920, he served as a prison warden in the united states where in later years he brought major reforms into prisons, he was in later years regarded as the father of prisons after he introduced major reforms in the prison institutions, he run the Elmira penitentiary in the New York from the year 1876 to the year 1900, however in the year 1912 he authored a book entitled fifty years of prison service. The origin of parole however can also be attributed to the work of Alexander Maconochie and Walter Crofton, Maconochie was the governor of the Norfolk Island which is located off the coast of Australia, conditions in this penal colony were so bad especially for those who were serving life time imprisonment, Maconochie introduced a prison structure whereby prisoners who arrived in jail were first put under strict imprisonment, then through conditional release and
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finally freedom, the movement from one stage to another depended on the amount of points prisoners would earn. Definition of parole: Paroles are ways in which criminals are supervised in order to determine whether they are likely to commit the same crime or any other crime during this time period, if they do commit a crime during this period then they are sent back to prison to serve a jail term, both probations and paroles are set to determine the rehabilitation level of a convict and whether the convict is fully rehabilitated and whether he or she can live with the society without committing crimes. Parole is a privilege where one is eligible to parole if the prisoner receives a minimum and maximum sentence and after serving the minimum sentence the parole board may decide to put him or her under parole after a consideration hearing, this is in contrast with probation where it’s determined by the judge.
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