Ch17_071211 - Chapter 17 Properties of Solutions 17.1 17.2...

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Chapter 17 - Properties of Solutions 17.1 Solution Composition 17.2 Thermodynamics of Solution Formation 17.3 Factors Affecting Solubility 17.4 Vapor Pressures of Solutions 17.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression 17.6 Osmotic Pressure 17.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions 17.8 Colloids
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Definition of Solution Solution when the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled; the mixture is homogenous Examples: air, seawater, steel NOT : water (pure), wood (not homogeneous) Colloid a suspension of tiny particles in some medium is called a colloidal dispersion, or a colloid; the mixture is heterogeneous Examples: gelatin, fog, butter (Ch. 16 dealt with pure substances rather than mixtures)
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Definitions for Solutions Solute - The smaller (in mass) of the components in a solution; the material dispersed into a solvent. Solvent - The major component of the solution; the material that the solute is dissolved into. Solubility - The maximum amount that can be dissolved into a particular solvent to form a stable solution at a specified temperature. Miscibility - The ability of two substances to dissolve in one another in any proportion.
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Solutions do not need to be liquid
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Types of Colloids
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Methods for Quantifying How Much Solute is in a Solvent
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One part per hundred : Typically represented by the percent (%) symbol and denotes one part per 100 parts, one part in 10 2 , and a value of 1 × 10 2 . This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into 5 milliliters (one spoon-full) or one second of time in 1⅔ minutes. One part per million ( ppm ): Denotes one part per 1,000,000 parts, one part in 10 6 , and a value of 1 × 10 6 . This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into 50 liters (roughly the fuel tank capacity of a compact car), or one second of time in approximately 11½ days. One part per billion ( ppb ): Denotes one part per 1,000,000,000 parts, one part in 10 9 , and a value of 1 × 10 9 . This is equivalent to 1 drop of water diluted into 250 chemical drums (50 m 3 ), or one second of time in approximately 31.7 years. One part per trillion ( ppt ): Denotes one part per 1,000,000,000,000 parts, one part in 10 12 , and a value of 1 × 10 12 . This is equivalent to 1 drop of water diluted into 20, two-meter-deep Olympic-size swimming pools (50,000 m 3 ), or one second of time in approximately 31,700 years. A quick note on “parts per…” notation
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Remember !! Concentrations are ratios . They are not additive! Volumes are additive: V(total) = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 +… (in general) Masses are additive: m(total) = m 1 + m 2 + m 3 + … Moles are additive: n(total) = n 1 + n 2 + n 3 +… Concentrations are not additive: c = c 1 + c 2 + c 3 +…
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Calculating Molality - I To calculate molality (mol solute/kg solvent) , we need the number of moles of solute and the mass of solvent used to dissolve the solute! Normally, we are given the mass of solute and mass of solvent, therefore we calculate the moles of the solute from the mass, then use the mass of the solvent to calculate the molality.
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