Ch18_072111 - Chapters 18 The Periodic Table See Fig 18.1 Oxygen 0.96 Neon 0.67 Carbon 0.27 Others 1.14 Helium 36.56 Hydrogen 60.4 Universe

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Chapters 18 – The Periodic Table See Fig. 18.1
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Hydrogen 60.4% Helium 36.56% Oxygen 0.96% Neon 0.67% Carbon 0.27% Others 1.14% Universe Relative Abundances
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Iron 35% Oxygen 30% Silicon 15% Magnesium 13% Nickel 2% Sulfur 2% Calcium 1% Aluminum 1% Others 1% Whole Earth Relative Abundances
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Relative Abundances Oxygen 46.6% Silicon 27.72% Aluminum 8.13% Iron 5.00% Calcium 3.63% Sodium 2.83% Potassium 2.59% Magnesium 2.09% Others 0.83% Titanium 0.44% Hydrogen 0.14% Earth's Crust
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Oxygen 65.00% Carbon 18.00% Hydrogen 10.00% Nitrogen 3.00% Calcium 1.40% Phosphorous 1.00% Magnesium 0.50% Potassium 0.34% Sulfur 0.26% Sodium 0.14% Chlorine 0.14% Iron 0.004% Zinc 0.003% Other trace elements 0.21% Human Body
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“Representative” Elements The properties of the elements are determined by their electron configurations. Electron configurations (and orbital properties) determine periodic trends: – Electron affinity – Ionization energy – Atomic size – Metal vs. non-metal characteristics – Bonding abilities Each group (vertical column) shares common properties with each other and distinct differences from other groups based on electron configurations.
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Periodic Trends in Main Groups
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Periodic Trends in Main Groups: Atomic Radii Fig . 18.2 : Atomic radii increase down the columns
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Periodic Trends in Main Groups: Ionization Energy Ionization energy decreases down the columns (electrons are easier to remove)
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Group 1A Elements H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr Alkali metals Common Features: All but H are very active metals n s 1 electron configuration ( n = 1 to 7) Metals readily oxidized to X + state Vigorous reaction with water 2 M + 2 H 2 O 2 M + + 2OH - + H 2
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Demo: Reactivity of Li, Na and K with Water What reaction is happening here? 2Li + 2H 2 O 2LiOH + H 2 2Na + 2H 2 O 2NaOH + H 2 2K + 2H 2 O 2KOH + H 2
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Reaction of Li Metal with Water Reaction Equation: Li(s) + H 2 O(l) → Li + (aq) + OH (aq) + ½ H 2 (g) The reaction of lithium with water is the slowest among the alkali metals, even though it is the most thermodynamically favorable. E a is controlled by the lattice energy (highest for Li); ΔG o by the combination of lattice, ionization, and hydration enthalpies and entropies (lowest for Li, largely due to the favorable hydration enthalpy of the small Li+ ion).
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Periodic Trends in Main Groups: Group 1A
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Survey of Main Groups: Group 1A
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Hydrogen – The Simplest Element Most abundant element in the universe (but not on earth, why?) Colorless, odorless, highly flammable gas Low molar mass and non-polar…low b.p. and m.p. Sources: − Combustion of methane − Byproduct of gasoline production − Electrolysis of water Major uses: − Production of ammonia (Haber process) − Hydrogenation of vegetable oils to produce solid shortenings Typical nonmetal: covalent with other NMs, salts with very active metals Hydrides: binary compounds containing H
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O O O O Fatty acid Fatty acid H H The Chemistry of Molecular Hydrogen Hydrogenation Unsaturated fat H 2 (Ni catalyst) O O O O Fatty acid Fatty acid H H H H Saturated fat
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H + e ( H rxn = - 73 kJ/mol) H 2Li + H 2 2LiH Hydrides Hydrides: binary compounds containing H Ionic hydrides: hydrogen (as H - ) combines with G1A or G2A metal;
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course CHEM 162 taught by Professor N. during the Summer '08 term at University of Washington.

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Ch18_072111 - Chapters 18 The Periodic Table See Fig 18.1 Oxygen 0.96 Neon 0.67 Carbon 0.27 Others 1.14 Helium 36.56 Hydrogen 60.4 Universe

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