Ch19_complete_080911 - Figure 19.1 Chapter 19: Transition...

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Unformatted text preview: Figure 19.1 Chapter 19: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry Filling d-orbital shells 3 d 4 d 5 d Filling f-orbital shells General Properties of Transition Metals Metallic luster High electrical and thermal conductivity (Ag, Cu) Wide range of melting points (e.g. W @ 3400C, Hg @ -39C) and hardness Wide range of reactivity toward O 2 Fe 3 O 4- magnetite- magnetic recording material Fe 2 O 3 rust (scales off complete corrosion) Oxides of Cr, Co, and Ni- very hard, protective Coinage metals (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd) do not react readily with O 2 (noble metals) Easily oxidized Readily form ionic complexes e.g. Fe(H 2 O) 6 2+ , [Co(NH 3 ) 4 Cl 2 ] + Many coordination compounds are colored Many coordination compounds are paramagnetic More General Properties of Transition Metals Some important aspects of transition metal ions: 1. The valence electrons are in d orbitals 2. The d orbitals do not have a large radial extension 3. The d orbitals are, therefore, mostly nonbonding in complexes of transition metal ions For these reasons, the effects of redox changes are substantially smaller for transition metals than for main group elements Review Section 12.13! Figure 12.27 Electron configurations of the neutral transition metal elements 3 d start to fill after 4 s is full Cr and Cu are exceptions to trend: both are 4 s 1 3 d n Neutral TM: 3 d and 4 s orbitals similar in energy 3 d orbitals for TM ions much less E than 4 s , so 4 s electrons leave first (1 st row TM ions do not have 4 s electrons) Orbital Occupancy of Period 4 Transition Metals Elemen t 4 s 3 d 4 p Unpaired Electrons Sc 1 Ti 2 V 3 Cr 6 Mn 5 Fe 4 Co 3 Ni 2 Cu 1 Zn 0 When you oxidize a transition metal, remove s electrons first! Oxidation States See Table 19.2 for common oxidation states of the 1st-row transition metals +1 up to +7 are observed, with +2 and +3 most common Highest O.S. is loss of all 4 s and 3 d electrons As the oxidation state is increased, the d orbitals are stabilized, and the metals get harder to oxidize further [Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl]Cl 2 K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] Transition-metal complexes are extremely colorful. Color is influenced by metal ion (d n configuration), oxidation state, and coordinated ligands. Demo: Oxidation States of Mn 2 MnO 4- (aq) + 5 H 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) + 6 H + (aq) 2 Mn 2+ (aq) + 10 CO 2 (g) + 8 H 2 O(l) * Observe several intermediates (mixtures of MnO 4- , lower O.S. of Mn, and Mn(III)-oxalate complexes) Table 19.6 Oxidation State influences color VO 2+ (aq) +4 VO 2 + (aq) +5 V 3+ (aq) +3 V 2+ (aq) +2 V (s) Different colors are due to different numbers of electrons in the highest-occupied MOs of each V- containing polyatomic ion. containing polyatomic ion....
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Ch19_complete_080911 - Figure 19.1 Chapter 19: Transition...

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