nlhdh_tuan14_15 - The Linux System History Design...

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1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne © 2002 20.1 Operating System Concepts The Linux System ± History ± Design Principles ± Kernel Modules ± Process Management ± Scheduling ± Memory Management ± File Systems ± Input and Output ± Interprocess Communication ± Network Structure ± Security Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne © 2002 20.2 Operating System Concepts History ± Linux is a modem, free operating system based on UNIX standards. ± First developed as a small but self-contained kernel in 1991 by Linus Torvalds, with the major design goal of UNIX compatibility. ± Its history has been one of collaboration by many users from all around the world, corresponding almost exclusively over the Internet. ± It has been designed to run efficiently and reliably on common PC hardware, but also runs on a variety of other platforms. ± The core Linux operating system kernel is entirely original, but it can run much existing free UNIX software, resulting in an entire UNIX-compatible operating system free from proprietary code. Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne © 2002 20.3 Operating System Concepts The Linux Kernel ± Version 0.01 (May 1991) had no networking, ran only on 80386-compatible Intel processors and on PC hardware, had extremely limited device-drive support, and supported only the Minix file system. ± Linux 1.0 (March 1994) included these new features: ) Support for UNIX’s standard TCP/IP networking protocols ) BSD-compatible socket interface for networking programming ) Device-driver support for running IP over an Ethernet ) Enhanced file system ) Support for a range of SCSI controllers for high-performance disk access ) Extra hardware support ± Version 1.2 (March 1995) was the final PC-only Linux kernel. Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne © 2002 20.4 Operating System Concepts Linux 2.0 ± Released in June 1996, 2.0 added two major new capabilities: ) Support for multiple architectures, including a fully 64-bit native Alpha port. ) Support for multiprocessor architectures ± Other new features included: ) Improved memory-management code ) Improved TCP/IP performance ) Support for internal kernel threads, for handling dependencies between loadable modules, and for automatic loading of modules on demand. ) Standardized configuration interface ± Available for Motorola 68000-series processors, Sun Sparc systems, and for PC and PowerMac systems. Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne © 2002 20.5 Operating System Concepts The Linux System ± Linux uses many tools developed as part of Berkeley’s BSD operating system, MIT’s X Window System, and the Free Software Foundation's GNU project. ± The min system libraries were started by the GNU project, with improvements provided by the Linux community. ± Linux networking-administration tools were derived from
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nlhdh_tuan14_15 - The Linux System History Design...

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